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2011-10-24 00:46:03
PCAM Midterm

Study Materials for PCAM
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  1. Mental Status Examination
    • appearance and behavoir
    • speech and language
    • thoughts and perception
    • mood and cognition
  2. Appearance and Behavoir
    • grooming, hygeine, clothing, facial expressions, appearance compared to age, etc
    • attitude towards interviewer/others
    • degree of eye contact
    • level of distress
  3. affect
    an observable, usually episodic, feeling/tone expressed through voice, facial expression, and demeanor (today's temperature)
  4. mood
    • a more sustatined emotion that may color a person's view of the world
    • Mood is to affect as climate is to temperature
  5. How are mood and affect described?
    • quality
    • intensity
    • amplitude
    • range
    • reactivity
    • appropriateness
  6. akathisia
    subjective feeling of motor restlessness manifested by a compelling need to be in constant movement; may be seen as an extrapyramidal adverse effect of antipsychotic medication; may be mistaken for psychotic agitation
  7. aphasia
    any disturbance in the comprehension (receptive aphasisa - Wernicke's) or expression (expressive aphasia - Broca's) of language caused by a brain lesion.
  8. Wernicke's (receptive) aphasia
    aphasia characterized by inabiltiy to understand the spoken word; speech is fluent (articulation and inflection preserved) but devoid of meaning
  9. Broca's (expressive) aphasia
    disturbance of speech in which understanding remains, but speech output is impaired (nonfluent, telegraphic, and often minimal)
  10. ataxia
    lack/loss of muscular coordination
  11. attention
    the ability to focus or concentrate over time on one task or activity - an inattentive or distractible person with impaired consciousness has difficulty giving a history or responding to questions
  12. catatonia
    abnormally increased muscle tone (posturing, rigidity, waxy flexibility) and decreased responsiveness (mutism, negativism) usually resutling in stuporous immobility (stupor) but ocassionally resutling in frenzied or excited motor activity (excitement)
  13. chorea
    "work-like" - movement disorder characterized by random and involuntary quick, jerky, purposeless movements
  14. delirium
    • acute reversible mental disorder characterized by confusion and some impairment of consciouness; generally associated with emotional liability, hallucinations/illusions, and inapprorpirate, impulsive, irrational, and violent behavoir
    • abrupt onset
    • memory disturbance
    • hallucinations are common
    • abnormal level of consciousness/arousal
    • reversible
    • symptoms wax and wane over 24 hour period
  15. dementia
    • mental disorder characterized by general impairment in intellecutal functioning without clouding of consciousness; characterized by failing memory, difficulty with calculations, distractability, aalterations i mood and affect, impaired judgment, and orientation. gradual onset
    • memory disturbance
    • normal level of consiousness/arousal
    • irreversible often due to underlying progressive degenerative disease
    • hallucinations - common only in advanced stage
  16. dysarthria
    difficult and defective speech due to impairment of the tongue or other muslces essential to speech (difficulty in articulation)
  17. dystonia
    extrapyramidal motor disturbance consisting of slow, sustained contractions of the axial or appendicular musculatrue; one movement often predominates, leading to relatively sustained postural deviations
  18. graphesthesia
    ability to identify a letter or number traced on the skin
  19. orientation
    awareness of personal identity, place, and time; requires both memory and attention
  20. syncope
    temporary loss of consciousness and posture
  21. tic
    brief, repetitive, steroptyped, coordinated movements occuring at irregular intervals
  22. compulsions
    repetitive behavoirs/mental acts that a person feels drivent to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly
  23. obsessions
    reccurent, intrusive, and persisitent thoughts, images, or impulses that a person considers unacceptable and alien
  24. delusions
    false, fixed, personal beliefts that are nto shared by other members of the person's culture or subculture
  25. depersonalization
    an alteration in the percepton of experience of one's self or who you are
  26. derealization
    an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world, so that external world seems strange/unreal
  27. hallucination
    subjective sensory perceptions in the absence of releveant external stiumli
  28. homicidal ideation
    thought of causing physical harm to others
  29. phobias
    persistent, irrational fears, accompanied by a compelling desire to avoid the stimulus
  30. suicidal ideation
    thought of taking one's own life
  31. loose associations
    speech in which a person shifts from one subject to others that are unrelated/related only obliquely without realizing that subjects are not meaningfully connected; ideas slip off the track between clauses, not within them
  32. tremor
    relatively rhythmic oscillatroy movements
  33. Examination One of Cranial Nerves
    I, II, III, IV, VI (1-4,6)
  34. Cranial Nerve I
    • Olfactory
    • sense of smell
  35. Cranial Nerve II
    • Optic
    • visual acuity & visual fields, optic fundi, pupillary reactions
  36. Cranial Nerve III
    • Oculomotor
    • pupillary reactions, most extraocular movements, upper eyelid elevation
  37. Cranial Nerve IV
    • Trochlear
    • downward inward movement of each eye
  38. Cranial Nerve VI
    • Abducens
    • abduction (lateral movement) of each eye
  39. Examination Two of Cranial Nerves
    V, VII, VIII (5, 7. 8)
  40. Cranial Nerve V
    • Trigeminal
    • Motor- jaw clenching and lateral movement
    • Sensory - corneal reflexes and facial sensations
  41. Cranial Nerve VII
    • Facial
    • Motor - facial movements (facial expressions, closing the eye, closing the mouth)
    • Sensory - taste for salty, sweet, sour, and bitter on anterior 2/3 of tongue
  42. Cranial Nerves VIII
    • Acoustic (Vestibulocochlear)
    • hearing (cochlear) and balance (vesbiular)
  43. Examination Three of Cranial Nerves
    IX, X, XI, XII (9-12)
  44. Cranial Nerve IX
    • Glossopharyngeal
    • Motor - pharynx
    • Sensory - posterior portions of ear drum and ear canal, pharynx, posterior tongue, taste (salty, sweet, sour and bitter)
  45. Cranial Nerve X
    • Vagus
    • Motor - palate, pharynx, larynx
    • Sensory - pharynx, larynx
  46. Cranial Nerve XI
    • Spinal Accessory
    • shoulder and neck movements
  47. Cranial Nerves XII
    • Hypoglossal
    • tongue symmetry and position
  48. Motor Only Cranial Nerves
  49. Motor and Sensory Cranial Nerves
    V, VII, IX, X
  50. Sensory Only Cranial Nerves
    I, II, VIII