H.A. Exam 4 Vocab

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H.A. Exam 4 Vocab
2011-10-24 00:49:44


Health Assessment Exam 4 (Chp 13-17) - Skin, Hair and Nails; Head and Neck Lymphatics; Eyes; Ears; Nose, Sinuses, Mouth, and Throat
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  1. ABCDE of Melanoma detection
    Asymmetry; Border irregularity, Color, Diameter of more than 6 mm; Evolution of lesion over time.
  2. Apocrine Glands
  3. Glands in the axillae and genital area that open into hair follicles and become activated at puberty. They secrete a thick, milky sweat into hair follicles that, once mixed with bacterial skin flora, produce a characteristic musky odor.
  4. Brawny skin
    skin that is dark and leathery
  5. Bulla
    fluid-filled lesion greater than 1 cm in circumference
  6. Cafe-au-lait macules
    flat pigmented skin lesions
  7. Clubbing of the nails
    finding in the nails that indicated chronic hypoxia.
  8. Crust
    dried secretions from a primary skin lesion
  9. Cyanosis
    gray or blue skin color, indicating lack of oxygen.
  10. Dermis
    the second layer of the skin, which acts to support the epidermis. Also supports nutritional needs.
  11. Dysplastic nevus
    an atypical mole
  12. Ecchymosis
    bruise or bruising
  13. Eccrine glands
    Glands that cover most of the body, with the exception of the nail beds, lip margins, glans penis, and labia minora. They are most numerous on the palms and soles, open directly on the skin surface, and secrete a weak saline solution (sweat) in response to environmental or psychological stimuli.
  14. Epidermis
    outermost layer of the skin; 1st line of defense
  15. Erosion
    loss of the epidermis, usually not extending into the dermis or subcutaneous layer.
  16. Erythema
  17. Excoriation
    lesion resulting from scratching or excessive rubbing of the skin or a discrete lesion.
  18. Fissure
    linear break in the skin surface, not related to trauma.
  19. Flushing
    turning red, as with fever
  20. Jaundice
    yellowish discoloration of the skin and conjunctive caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the body.
  21. Keloid
    excessive fibrous tissue replacement, resulting in an enlarged scar and deficiency.
  22. Lanugo
    fine hair that may cover the newborn
  23. Lichenification
    accentuation of normal skin lines resembling tree bark, commonly caused by excessive scratching.
  24. Linea nigra
    a dark line that appears on the pregnant women, usually disappears after childbirth, and extends from umbilicus to pubis.
  25. Macule
    flat, distinct, colored area of skin that is less than 10 mm in diameter and does not include a change in skin texture or thickness.
  26. Malar rash
    red macular lesions distributed over the forehead, cheeks, and chin, resembling the pattern of a butterfly
  27. Melanoma
    the most serious type of skin cancer, which develops in cells that produce melanin.
  28. Melasma
    a blotchy discoloration on the face of pregnant women, also called the “mask of pregnancy.”
  29. Nails
    epidermal appendages that arise from a nail matrix in the epidermis, near the distal portions of each finger and toe
  30. Nodule
    solid palpable lesion greater than 1 cm in diameter, often with some depth.
  31. Pallor
    paleness of the skin
  32. Papule
    raised, defined lesion of any color, less than 1 cm in diameter.
  33. Photoallergy
    reaction to the sun, often caused by a medication, that manifests with blisters and redness on exposed skin and occurs only after repeated exposure to offending substance. It persists for some time after removal of the offending substance, UV exposure, or both.
  34. Photosensitivity
    rash that appears after exposure to the sun.
  35. Phototoxicity
    reaction caused by a drugs molecules absorbing energy from a particular UV wavelength and then damaging surrounding tissues. The result is marked and severly tender sunburn.
  36. Plaque
    raised, defined lesion of any color, greater than 1 cm in diameter.
  37. Pressure ulcer
    loss of skin surface, extending into dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscle, bone, or all of these.
  38. Primary lesions
  39. reddened lesions that arise from previously normal skin and include maculae, papules, nodules, tumors, polyps, wheals, blisters, cysts, pustules, and abscesses. May be further described as nonelevated, elevated solid, or fluid-filled.
  40. Pruritis
  41. Purpura
    red or purple skin discolorations that do not blanch when pressure is applied. They are caused by bleeding underneath the skin. Purpura measure 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
  42. Pustule
    purulent fluid-filled raised lesion of any size
  43. Scale
    rapid turnover of epidermal layer, resulting in accumulation and delayed shedding of outermost epidermis
  44. Scar
    fibrous replacement of lost skin structure
  45. Sebaceous glands
    Glands located throughout the body, except the palms and soles, that open into hair follicles and secrete sebum (oil-like substance that assists the skin in moisture retention and friction protection.)
  46. Secondary lesions
    skin changes that appear following a primary lesion (e.g.: formation of scar tissue, crust from dried burn vesicles.)
  47. Self-skin examination
    an examination of the skin that the patient himself or herself performs to identify potentially problematic lesions
  48. Subcutaneous layer
    innermost skin layer; provides insulation, storage of calorie reserves, and cushioning against external forces. Composed mainly of fat and loose connective tissue, it also contributes to the skins mobility
  49. Sunblocks
    substances applied to the skin to deflect rays from absorption.
  50. Sunscreens
    substances applied to the skin to absorb harmful UV rays. They need to be applied every 2 hours for max protection
  51. Tenting
    a persistent pinch
  52. Terminal hair
  53. 1. darker and coarser hair than vellus hair. It varies in length and is generally on the scalp, brows, and eyelids. In post pubertal people, terminal hair is found on the axillae, perineum, and legs; on post pubertal males, it also appears on the chest and abdomen.
  54. Turgor
    skins ability to change shape and return to normal elasticity. Used to assess the status of fluid loss or dehydration in the body
  55. Anterior triangle
    area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and midline of the neck.
  56. Cranium
    The collective bones of the head. The term skull is used synonymously.
  57. Fontanels
    Membrane-covered spaces between the bones of the cranium in the infant.
  58. Graves' disease
    Severe hyperthyroidism
  59. Lymph nodes
    small oval structures throughout the body that filter bacteria and viruses and help to fight infection. They normally range in size from very tiny (less than 1 mm) to more than 1 cm. Lymph nodes of the head and neck region are some of the most accessible to physical examination.
  60. Macrocephaly
    Enlargement of the head, usually from obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
  61. Mandible
    lower jaw
  62. Maxilla
    upper jaw
  63. Microcephaly
    smaller than normal head size, noted at birth and associated with underdevelopment of the brain and mental retardation.
  64. Nasolabial folds
    slight prominence of tissue between the nose and lips; should be symmetrical upon inspection.
  65. Posterior triangle
    area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius muscles.
  66. Salivary glands
    three pairs of glands that secrete saliva into the mouth: parotid, sublingual, and submandibular.
  67. Sternocleidomastoid muscle
    large muscle attached to the sternum and clavicle inferiorly and mastoid process of the temporal bone superiorly. This muscle separates the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
  68. Sutures
    flat joints between the bones of the skull. In the infant, these sutures are not calcified, allowing for skull bone and brain growth
  69. Trapezius muscle
    large muscle of the upper back and posterior neck connected to the occipital bone superiorly and spinous processes of the thoracic and seventh cervical vertebrae inferiorly and the shoulder.
  70. Amblyopia
    Condition in which the vision on one eye is reduced because the eye and brain are not working together. It is the most common cause of visual impairment in children.
  71. Asthenopia
    Eye strain
  72. Blepharitis
    Inflammation of the margin of the eyelid.
  73. Blindness
    Inability to see; loss of vision
  74. Cataract
    Opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye, which obstructs the passage of light.
  75. Chalazion
    Cyst (meibomian gland lipogranuloma) in the eyelid resulting from inflammation of the meibomian gland
  76. Conjunctiva
    Clear membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids
  77. Conjunctivitis
    Inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines the eyelid and part of the eyeball
  78. Cornea
    Transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
  79. Emmetropia
    Refractive index
  80. Exophthalmos
    Bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit
  81. Extraocular muscles
    Muscles that control eye movement and hold the eye in place in the socket.
  82. Glaucoma
    Disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the eye.
  83. Hordeolum
  84. Hyperopia
  85. Iris
    Anatomical eye structure responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils and the amount of light reaching them
  86. Jaeger test
    Acuity test for near vision
  87. Lacrimal apparatus
    Physiologic system containing the orbital structures for production and drainage; consists of the lacrimal gland and its excretory ducts, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, and nerve supply
  88. Lens
    Optic device with perfect or approximate axial symmetry; transmits and refracts light, converging or diverging the beam.
  89. Limbus
    border between the cornea and sclera
  90. Macula
    Structure lateral to the optic disc, the area with the greatest concentration of cones.
  91. Macular degeneration
    Disease that gradually causes loss of sharp central vision, needed for common daily tasks
  92. Myopia
  93. Ophthalmoscope
    Instrument used to visualize the inner eye and its structures
  94. Optic disc
    Also called optic nerve head; location where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve.
  95. Palpebral fissure
    Almond-shaped open space between the eyelids.
  96. Presbyopia
    considered a natural part of aging; a condition that results from loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens. As this happens, the ciliary muscles that bend and straighten the lens lose their power to accommodate
  97. Pupil
    Opening in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to enter the retina.
  98. Retina
    Light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye
  99. Retinopathy
    Damage to retinal blood vessels. The two most common cause are diabetes and hypertension.
  100. Sclera
    white part of the eye
  101. Snellen's test
    Test using a Snellen’s chart to measure visual acuity.
  102. Air conduction
    Normal pathway by which sounds travel to the inner ear.
  103. Audiogram
    Test for auditory acuity conducted by an audiologist in a soundproof room.
  104. Bone conduction
    Pathway for sound transmission that bypasses the external ear and delivers sound waves/ vibrations directly to the inner ear via the skull.
  105. Cerumen
    Waxy substance secreted by glands in the ear.
  106. Cochlea
    Part of the body labyrinth that includes the portions of the inner ear responsible for hearing.
  107. Conductive hearing loss
    Hearing loss that results when sound wave transmission through the external or middle ear is disrupted
  108. Equilibrium
    condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced. The sense of a balance present in humans and animals
  109. Eustachian tube
    Conduit that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx and allows for pressure regulation of the middle ear.
  110. Incus
    Anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear that connects the malleus to the stapes. It conducts sound to the inner ear.
  111. Malleus
    Also called the hammer; a hammer-shaped bone or ossicle of the middle ear that connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum.
  112. Organ of Corti
    Also called the spiral organ; contains auditory sensory cells (hair cells) in the inner surface of the eardrum
  113. Otalgia
    Pain in or around the ear.
  114. Otosclerosis
    Common conductive hearing loss resulting from the slow fusion of any combination of the ossicles in the middle ear.
  115. Presbycusis
    Natural sensorineural loss
  116. Rinne test
    Test conducted with a tuning fork to examine the differentiation between bone conduction (BC) and air conduction (AC).
  117. Semicircular canals
    Three half circular, interconnected tubes inside each ear that are filled with a fluid called endolymph and a motion sensor with little hairs (cilia) whose ends are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the skull twists in any direction, the endolymph is thrown into different section of the canals. The cilia detect when the endolymph rushes past and a signal is then sent to the brain.
  118. Sensorineural hearing loss
    Hearing loss that results from a problem somewhere beyond the middle ear, from inner ear to auditory cortex
  119. Stapes
  120. 1. Also called the stirrup; the stirrup shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear that attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the “oval window” which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear it is the smallest and lightest bone in the human body.
  121. Tinnitus
    Perception of buzzing or ringing in one ear or both ears that does not correspond with an external sound
  122. Tympanic membrane
    Oblique, multilayered, translucent, and pearly gray barrier betwen the external auditory canal and middle ear
  123. Vertigo
    Type of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary.
  124. Vestibular function
    proprioception and equilibrium.
  125. Vestibule
    Central part of the labyrinth, as used in the vestibular system.
  126. Allergic salute
    An upward rubbing of the external nose induced by itching; may lead to a crease or bend in the nose, most commonly in children with allergies.
  127. Angular cheilitis
    Maceration of the skin at the corners of the mouth; caused by overclosure of the mouth.
  128. Ankyloglossia
    A short lingual frenulum; may be congenital, restricting movement of the tongue and subsequently speech.
  129. Anosmia
    Decreased smell
  130. Atopy
  131. Bednar aphthae
    Ulcerative abrasions on the posterior hard palate that result from hard sucking.
  132. Bifid uvula
    Minor cleft of the posterior soft palate.
  133. Choana
    Opening of the nose
  134. Choanal atresia
    Restriction of the bucco-nasal membrane
  135. Columella
    Anatomical structure that divides the oval nares (nostrils)
  136. Deviation of septum
    Deflection of the center wall of the nose (septum)
  137. Dysphagia
    Difficulty swallowing
  138. Epistaxis
  139. Epstein pearls
    Small, white, glistening, pearly papules along the median border of the hard palate and gums; a normal finding in newborns.
  140. Epulis
    Localized gingival enlargement. May lead to a tumor-like mass.
  141. Fordyce's granules
    Small isolated white or yellow papules on the buccal mucosa, representing insignificant sebaceous cysts or salivary tissue.
  142. Geographic tongue
    tongue appearance with creases, bends, and unusual appearance; tends to occur in people with allergic disease but has no significant pathology.
  143. Gustatory rhinitis
    Clear rhinorrhea stimulated by the smell and taste of food.
  144. Halitosis
    Bad breath
  145. Hemangioma
    Benign mass of blood vessels
  146. Koplik's spots
    finding in rubeola measles; appearance resembles grains of salt on the erythematous base of the buccal mucosa opposite the first and second molars
  147. Leukoplakia
    white patches with well-defined borders found on the lips or gums
  148. Lingula frenulum
    anatomical structure that connects the base of the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
  149. Ludwig's angina
    swelling that results from infection in the floor of the mouth and pushes the tongue up and back. it can lead to eventual airway obstruction.
  150. Milia
    Small white bumps across the bridge of the nose; a common newborn finding.
  151. Oral candidiasis
    white coating of the tongue. also known as thrush.
  152. Osteo-meatal complex
    the collective middle turbinate and middle meatus area.
  153. peritonsillar abscess
    abscess in the anterior tonsillar pillar that may result from collection of fluid.
  154. Petechiae
    small red spots under the skin resulting from blood that escapes the capillaries; may occur with trauma, infection, or decreased platelet counts.
  155. Pharyngitis
    inflammation of the pharyngeal walls
  156. Polyps
    grape-like swollen nasal membranes, may appear white and glistening.
  157. Rubeola measles
    infectious disease with symptoms of a maculopapular rash on the buccal mucosa, fever, inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane, nasal discharge, and cough
  158. Scrotal tongue
    fissures that become inflamed with food or debris and apear in the tongue.
  159. Septal perforation
    hole in the midline septum
  160. Smooth, glossy tongue
    tongue and buccal mucosa that appear smooth and shiny from papillary atrophy and thinning of the buccal mucosa.
  161. Sucking tubercle
    in infants the formation of a small pad of tissue in the middle of the upper lip
  162. Tonsillitis
    inflammation of the tonsils
  163. torus palatinus
    Bony prominence in the middle of the hard palate
  164. Trismus
    Inability to open the jaw
  165. Vermillion
    Junction of the lip and facial skin
  166. Vestibule
    Anatomic name for the nares; comprised of skin and ciliated mucosa
  167. Xerostoma
    dry mouth