Health Assessment Exam 4 (Chp 13-17) - Skin, Hair and Nails; Head and Neck Lymphatics; Eyes; Ears; Nose, Sinuses, Mouth, and Throat
ABCDE of Melanoma detection
Asymmetry; Border irregularity, Color, Diameter of more than 6 mm; Evolution of lesion over time.
Glands in the axillae and genital area that open into hair follicles and become activated at puberty. They secrete a thick, milky sweat into hair follicles that, once mixed with bacterial skin flora, produce a characteristic musky odor.
skin that is dark and leathery
fluid-filled lesion greater than 1 cm in circumference
flat pigmented skin lesions
Clubbing of the nails
finding in the nails that indicated chronic hypoxia.
dried secretions from a primary skin lesion
gray or blue skin color, indicating lack of oxygen.
the second layer of the skin, which acts to support the epidermis. Also supports nutritional needs.
an atypical mole
bruise or bruising
Glands that cover most of the body, with the exception of the nail beds, lip margins, glans penis, and labia minora. They are most numerous on the palms and soles, open directly on the skin surface, and secrete a weak saline solution (sweat) in response to environmental or psychological stimuli.
outermost layer of the skin; 1st line of defense
loss of the epidermis, usually not extending into the dermis or subcutaneous layer.
lesion resulting from scratching or excessive rubbing of the skin or a discrete lesion.
linear break in the skin surface, not related to trauma.
turning red, as with fever
yellowish discoloration of the skin and conjunctive caused by a buildup of bilirubin in the body.
excessive fibrous tissue replacement, resulting in an enlarged scar and deficiency.
fine hair that may cover the newborn
accentuation of normal skin lines resembling tree bark, commonly caused by excessive scratching.
a dark line that appears on the pregnant women, usually disappears after childbirth, and extends from umbilicus to pubis.
flat, distinct, colored area of skin that is less than 10 mm in diameter and does not include a change in skin texture or thickness.
red macular lesions distributed over the forehead, cheeks, and chin, resembling the pattern of a butterfly
the most serious type of skin cancer, which develops in cells that produce melanin.
a blotchy discoloration on the face of pregnant women, also called the “mask of pregnancy.”
epidermal appendages that arise from a nail matrix in the epidermis, near the distal portions of each finger and toe
solid palpable lesion greater than 1 cm in diameter, often with some depth.
paleness of the skin
raised, defined lesion of any color, less than 1 cm in diameter.
reaction to the sun, often caused by a medication, that manifests with blisters and redness on exposed skin and occurs only after repeated exposure to offending substance. It persists for some time after removal of the offending substance, UV exposure, or both.
rash that appears after exposure to the sun.
reaction caused by a drugs molecules absorbing energy from a particular UV wavelength and then damaging surrounding tissues. The result is marked and severly tender sunburn.
raised, defined lesion of any color, greater than 1 cm in diameter.
loss of skin surface, extending into dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, muscle, bone, or all of these.
reddened lesions that arise from previously normal skin and include maculae, papules, nodules, tumors, polyps, wheals, blisters, cysts, pustules, and abscesses. May be further described as nonelevated, elevated solid, or fluid-filled.
red or purple skin discolorations that do not blanch when pressure is applied. They are caused by bleeding underneath the skin. Purpura measure 0.3 – 1.0 cm.
purulent fluid-filled raised lesion of any size
rapid turnover of epidermal layer, resulting in accumulation and delayed shedding of outermost epidermis
fibrous replacement of lost skin structure
Glands located throughout the body, except the palms and soles, that open into hair follicles and secrete sebum (oil-like substance that assists the skin in moisture retention and friction protection.)
skin changes that appear following a primary lesion (e.g.: formation of scar tissue, crust from dried burn vesicles.)
an examination of the skin that the patient himself or herself performs to identify potentially problematic lesions
innermost skin layer; provides insulation, storage of calorie reserves, and cushioning against external forces. Composed mainly of fat and loose connective tissue, it also contributes to the skins mobility
substances applied to the skin to deflect rays from absorption.
substances applied to the skin to absorb harmful UV rays. They need to be applied every 2 hours for max protection
a persistent pinch
1. darker and coarser hair than vellus hair. It varies in length and is generally on the scalp, brows, and eyelids. In post pubertal people, terminal hair is found on the axillae, perineum, and legs; on post pubertal males, it also appears on the chest and abdomen.
skins ability to change shape and return to normal elasticity. Used to assess the status of fluid loss or dehydration in the body
area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and midline of the neck.
The collective bones of the head. The term skull is used synonymously.
Membrane-covered spaces between the bones of the cranium in the infant.
small oval structures throughout the body that filter bacteria and viruses and help to fight infection. They normally range in size from very tiny (less than 1 mm) to more than 1 cm. Lymph nodes of the head and neck region are some of the most accessible to physical examination.
Enlargement of the head, usually from obstruction of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid
smaller than normal head size, noted at birth and associated with underdevelopment of the brain and mental retardation.
slight prominence of tissue between the nose and lips; should be symmetrical upon inspection.
area of the neck between the sternocleidomastoid muscle and trapezius muscles.
three pairs of glands that secrete saliva into the mouth: parotid, sublingual, and submandibular.
large muscle attached to the sternum and clavicle inferiorly and mastoid process of the temporal bone superiorly. This muscle separates the anterior and posterior triangles of the neck
flat joints between the bones of the skull. In the infant, these sutures are not calcified, allowing for skull bone and brain growth
large muscle of the upper back and posterior neck connected to the occipital bone superiorly and spinous processes of the thoracic and seventh cervical vertebrae inferiorly and the shoulder.
Condition in which the vision on one eye is reduced because the eye and brain are not working together. It is the most common cause of visual impairment in children.
Inflammation of the margin of the eyelid.
Inability to see; loss of vision
Opacity of the crystalline lens of the eye, which obstructs the passage of light.
Cyst (meibomian gland lipogranuloma) in the eyelid resulting from inflammation of the meibomian gland
Clear membrane that covers the sclera (white part of the eye) and lines the inside of the eyelids
Inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines the eyelid and part of the eyeball
Transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.
Bulging of the eye anteriorly out of the orbit
Muscles that control eye movement and hold the eye in place in the socket.
Disease in which the optic nerve is damaged, leading to progressive, irreversible loss of vision. It is often, but not always, associated with increased pressure of the eye.
Anatomical eye structure responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupils and the amount of light reaching them
Acuity test for near vision
Physiologic system containing the orbital structures for production and drainage; consists of the lacrimal gland and its excretory ducts, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, nasolacrimal duct, and nerve supply
Optic device with perfect or approximate axial symmetry; transmits and refracts light, converging or diverging the beam.
border between the cornea and sclera
Structure lateral to the optic disc, the area with the greatest concentration of cones.
Disease that gradually causes loss of sharp central vision, needed for common daily tasks
Instrument used to visualize the inner eye and its structures
Also called optic nerve head; location where ganglion cell axons exit the eye to form the optic nerve.
Almond-shaped open space between the eyelids.
considered a natural part of aging; a condition that results from loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens. As this happens, the ciliary muscles that bend and straighten the lens lose their power to accommodate
Opening in the center of the iris of the eye that allows light to enter the retina.
Light-sensitive tissue lining the inner surface of the eye
Damage to retinal blood vessels. The two most common cause are diabetes and hypertension.
white part of the eye
Test using a Snellen’s chart to measure visual acuity.
Normal pathway by which sounds travel to the inner ear.
Test for auditory acuity conducted by an audiologist in a soundproof room.
Pathway for sound transmission that bypasses the external ear and delivers sound waves/ vibrations directly to the inner ear via the skull.
Waxy substance secreted by glands in the ear.
Part of the body labyrinth that includes the portions of the inner ear responsible for hearing.
Conductive hearing loss
Hearing loss that results when sound wave transmission through the external or middle ear is disrupted
condition of a system in which competing influences are balanced. The sense of a balance present in humans and animals
Conduit that connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx and allows for pressure regulation of the middle ear.
Anvil-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear that connects the malleus to the stapes. It conducts sound to the inner ear.
Also called the hammer; a hammer-shaped bone or ossicle of the middle ear that connects with the incus and is attached to the inner surface of the eardrum.
Organ of Corti
Also called the spiral organ; contains auditory sensory cells (hair cells) in the inner surface of the eardrum
Pain in or around the ear.
Common conductive hearing loss resulting from the slow fusion of any combination of the ossicles in the middle ear.
Natural sensorineural loss
Test conducted with a tuning fork to examine the differentiation between bone conduction (BC) and air conduction (AC).
Three half circular, interconnected tubes inside each ear that are filled with a fluid called endolymph and a motion sensor with little hairs (cilia) whose ends are embedded in a gelatinous structure called the cupula. As the skull twists in any direction, the endolymph is thrown into different section of the canals. The cilia detect when the endolymph rushes past and a signal is then sent to the brain.
Sensorineural hearing loss
Hearing loss that results from a problem somewhere beyond the middle ear, from inner ear to auditory cortex
1. Also called the stirrup; the stirrup shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear that attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the “oval window” which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear it is the smallest and lightest bone in the human body.
Perception of buzzing or ringing in one ear or both ears that does not correspond with an external sound
Oblique, multilayered, translucent, and pearly gray barrier betwen the external auditory canal and middle ear
Type of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary.
proprioception and equilibrium.
Central part of the labyrinth, as used in the vestibular system.
An upward rubbing of the external nose induced by itching; may lead to a crease or bend in the nose, most commonly in children with allergies.
Maceration of the skin at the corners of the mouth; caused by overclosure of the mouth.
A short lingual frenulum; may be congenital, restricting movement of the tongue and subsequently speech.
Ulcerative abrasions on the posterior hard palate that result from hard sucking.
Minor cleft of the posterior soft palate.
Opening of the nose
Restriction of the bucco-nasal membrane
Anatomical structure that divides the oval nares (nostrils)
Deviation of septum
Deflection of the center wall of the nose (septum)
Small, white, glistening, pearly papules along the median border of the hard palate and gums; a normal finding in newborns.
Localized gingival enlargement. May lead to a tumor-like mass.
Small isolated white or yellow papules on the buccal mucosa, representing insignificant sebaceous cysts or salivary tissue.
tongue appearance with creases, bends, and unusual appearance; tends to occur in people with allergic disease but has no significant pathology.
Clear rhinorrhea stimulated by the smell and taste of food.
Benign mass of blood vessels
finding in rubeola measles; appearance resembles grains of salt on the erythematous base of the buccal mucosa opposite the first and second molars
white patches with well-defined borders found on the lips or gums
anatomical structure that connects the base of the tongue to the floor of the mouth.
swelling that results from infection in the floor of the mouth and pushes the tongue up and back. it can lead to eventual airway obstruction.
Small white bumps across the bridge of the nose; a common newborn finding.
white coating of the tongue. also known as thrush.
the collective middle turbinate and middle meatus area.
abscess in the anterior tonsillar pillar that may result from collection of fluid.
small red spots under the skin resulting from blood that escapes the capillaries; may occur with trauma, infection, or decreased platelet counts.
inflammation of the pharyngeal walls
grape-like swollen nasal membranes, may appear white and glistening.
infectious disease with symptoms of a maculopapular rash on the buccal mucosa, fever, inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane, nasal discharge, and cough
fissures that become inflamed with food or debris and apear in the tongue.
hole in the midline septum
Smooth, glossy tongue
tongue and buccal mucosa that appear smooth and shiny from papillary atrophy and thinning of the buccal mucosa.
in infants the formation of a small pad of tissue in the middle of the upper lip
inflammation of the tonsils
Bony prominence in the middle of the hard palate
Inability to open the jaw
Junction of the lip and facial skin
Anatomic name for the nares; comprised of skin and ciliated mucosa