antropology test1

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antropology test1
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2011-10-24 01:01:55
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  1. Orthogenesis
    the theory that all culture or organism go through stages and through the same direction until "prefection"
  2. Cladogenesis & Anagensis
    • Cladogensis= is the process by which a species splits into two distinct species, rather than one species gradually transforming into another.
    • Anagensis= evolution that gradual changes with each step. continous order!
  3. Punctuated Equilibrium
    • -That is, species are generally stable, changing little for millions of years.
    • - last time it happened was 65 million years ago with dinosaurs
  4. Gradualism
    a theory that profound change is the cumulative product of slow but continuous processes
  5. Adaptive Radiation
    This is where species all deriving from a common ancestor have over time successfully adapted to their environment via natural selection.
  6. Niche
    A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living. The ecological niche describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of resources and competitors (e.g., by growing when resources are abundant, and when predators, parasites and pathogens are scarce) and how it in turn alters those same factors (e.g., limiting access to resources by other organisms, acting as a food source for predators and a consumer of prey).
  7. Fitness
    a biological trait describes how successful an organism has been at passing on its genes. The more likely that an individual is able to survive and live longer to reproduce, the higher is the fitness of that individual.
  8. Natural Selection
    A process in nature in which organisms possessing certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an environment tend to survive,reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their essential genotypic qualities to succeeding generations.
  9. Monogenic
    An inherited disease determined by the interaction of a single pair of mutated genes
  10. Polygenic
    • -pertaining to or determined by several genes
    • -traits are continous traits governed by alleles at more than one genetic locus.
    • -skin color or eye color are examples of polygenic
  11. Founders Effect
    The loss of genetic variation when a new colony is formed by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
  12. Gene Flow
    The movement of genes into or through a population by interbreeding or by migration and interbreeding.
  13. Gene Frequency
    The frequency in the population of a particular gene relative to other genes at its locus. Expressed as a proportion (between 0 and 1) or percentage (between 0 and 100 percent).
  14. Gene Pool
    All the genes in a population at a particular time.
  15. Alleles
    One of the alternative forms of a gene. For example, if a gene determines the seed color of peas, one allele of that gene may produce green seeds and another allele produce yellow seeds. In a diploid cell there are usually two alleles of any one gene (one from each parent). Within a population there may be many different alleles of a gene; each has a unique nucleotide sequence.
  16. Codon
    A triplet of bases (or nucleotides) in the DNA coding for one amino acid. The relation between codons and amino acids is given by the genetic code. The triplet of bases that is complementary to a condon is called an anticodon; conventionally, the triplet in the mRNA is called the codon and the triplet in the tRNA is called the anticodon.
  17. Protein
    A molecule made up of a sequence of amino acids. Many of the important molecules in a living thing -- for example, all enzymes -- are proteins.
  18. Amino Acids
    The unit molecular building block of proteins, which are chains of amino acids in a certain sequence. There are 20 main amino acids in the proteins of living things, and the properties of a protein are determined by its particular amino acid sequence.
  19. Homozygous
    Having identical alleles for a particular trait.
  20. Heterozygous
    Having two different alleles for a particular trait.
  21. Phenotype
    The physical or functional characteristics of an organism, produced by the interaction of genotype and environment during growth and development.
  22. Genotype
    The set of two genes possessed by an individual at a given locus. More generally, the genetic profile of an individual.
  23. Genome
    The full set of DNA in a cell or organism.
  24. Microevolution
    Evolutionary changes on the small scale, such as changes in gene frequencies within a population.
  25. Macroevolution
    A vague term generally used to refer to evolution on a grand scale, or over long periods of time. There is no precise scientific definition for this term, but it is often used to refer to the emergence or modification of taxa at or above the genus level. The origin or adaptive radiation of a higher taxon, such as vertebrates, could be called a macroevolutionary event.
  26. Speciation
    Changes in related organisms to the point where they are different enough to be considered separate species. This occurs when populations of one species are separated and adapt to their new environment or conditions (physiological, geographic, or behavioral).
  27. Mass (Extinction)
    The disappearance of a species or a population.
  28. Inheritance Of Acquired Characteristics
    Historically influential but factually erroneous theory that an individual inherits characters that its parents acquired during their lifetimes.

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