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- The study of food including:
- How food nourishes our bodies
- How food influences our health
Why is it important?
- Healthful diet can prevent disease
- Nutrient deficiency diseases:
- Scurvy, goiter, rickets, anemia
- Chronic diseases influenced by nutrition:
- heart disease, cancer and diabetes
- Diseases in which nutrition play a role:
Essential nutrients (examples)
- Nutrients for which specific biological functions have been identified, and which our bodies cannot make enough of to meet our biological needs.
- Ex: Vitamin K (made from bacteria) Vitamin D
Nonessential nutrients (examples)
- Nutrients required in relatively large amounts:
- Ex: Provide energy to our bodies
- Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins
- Nutrients required in smaller amounts:
- Ex: Vitamins and minerals
- Nutrients contain an element of carbon that is an essential component of all living organisms:
- Ex: Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins
What is the unit of energy used in nutrition?
How was that unit determined?
amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g or water by 1degree C
How much energy do we get (per gram) from each of the macronutrients?
- Carbs: 4 kcal per gram
- Lipids: 9 kcal per gram
- Proteins: 4 kcal per gram
List some food sources for the major macronutrients.
- Carbs: grains, wheat, rice, vegetables, fruits, legumes, lentils, beans, peas, milk products.
- Lipids: butter, margarine, oils
- Proteins: meats, dairy products, seeds, nuts and legumes.
What are some functions of proteins, aside from energy?
- Building cells and tissues
- maintaining bones
- repairing damage
- regulating metabolism
What types of disorders can result from the two vitamin classes: Fat soluble and water soluble?
Name some funtions of water in our bodies.
What four values help to determine our dietary reference intake (DRI)?
- 1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
- 2. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
- 3. Adequate Intake (AI)
- 4. Tolderable Upper-Intake Level (UL)
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
- The average daily intake level of a nutrient that will meet the needs of half of the healthy people in a particular category
- Used to determine the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of a nutrient
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
The average daily intake level required to meet the needs of 97-98% of healthy people in a particular category.
Adequate Intake (AI)
- Recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient.
- Based on observations and experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intakes by healthy people.
- Used when the RDA is not yet established:
- Calcium, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Flouride
Tolderable Upper Intake Level (UL)
- Highest average daily intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to most people.
- Consumption of a nutrient at levels above the UL, the potential for toxic effects and health risks increases.
Occurs when a person does not consume enough of a nutrient, a direct consequence of inadequate intake.
- Occurs when:
- -a person cannot absorb enough of a nutrient in his or her body
- -too much nutrient is excreted from the body
- -a nutrient is not utilized efficiently by the body
Describe the three types of deficiency symptoms discussed in class.
- Subclinical deficiency: occurs in the early stages, few or no symptoms are observed
- Covert: symptoms are hidden and require laboratory tests or other invasive procedures to detect
- Overt: symptoms of nutrition deficienty that becomes obvious
What does a "healthful diet" consist of?
- Provides the proper combination of energy and nutrients.
What are some recommendations, both nutrition and physical activity-related?
Name the major food groups and the relative proportions of overall kcalories that should come from each.
- 1. Grains
- 2. Vegetables
- 3. Fruits
- 4. Oils
- 5. Milk
- 6. Meat
Describe how the food guide pyramid is used in diet planning.
Name some limitations of using the pyramid.
Give an example of a diet plan for someone trying to treat various nutrition-related disorders (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, etc.)
- Psychological desire to consume specific foods.
- aroused by environmental cues
- Physilogical drive for food.
- Can be satisfied by a variety of different foods
What is the control center on the brain for hunger?
- Hypothalamus triggers feelings of hunger or satiation (fullness)
- -Integrates signals from nerve cells in other body regions and from chemcial messengers
- -special cells lining the stomach and small intestine send signals to the brain to indicate if they are full or empty
Name the major organs of digestion.
Mouth, teeth, tounge, salivary glands, esophagus, Stomach, Liver, gallbladder, pancreas, Large and Small Intestine, rectum, anus
Which are accessory organs?
Gallbaldder, Pancreas, Liver, Salivary glands
What is the cephalic stage of digestion?
- Hunger and appetite work together to prepare the GI tract for digestion
- First thought of food (nervous system) stimulates the release of digestive juices
Where does digestion and absorption of the major macronutrients take place?
Where does the absorption of water happen?
Name an enzyme that digests each macronutrient
- Salivary amylase=Carbs
- Gastric Lipase=Lipids
What is the function of bile?
- A greenish fluid produced by the liver.
- It emulsifies the lipids:
- Lipids are dispersed into smaller globules and become more accessible to digestive enzymes.
Where is it bile stored?
What is the storage form of carbohydrates in plants vs. animals?
Which hormones are involved in blood glucose metabolism?
- Painful, persistent heartburn.
- Causes include: Hiatial hernia, Cigarette smoking or alcohol use, being overweight, pregnancy, chocolate, citrus, spicy or fried foods, larg high-fat meal, lying down soon after a meal.
How do bateria play a role in digestion?
Name a bacterium responsible for a digestive disorder.
Helicobacter pylori plays a key role in development of both gastric and duodenal ulcers
What micronutrient do they produce and where do they make it?
What types of lipids do we use for energy?
Saturated fats (example)
- Solids at room temp with hydrogen
- Ex: Butter
Unsaturated fats (examples)
- Not all carbons have hydrogens liquid at room temperature.
- Ex: oils
Name a disease associated with an overabundance of sugar in the diet?
Name a disease associated with an overabundance of saturated fat in the diet.