MANU 3317-Notes 1

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Author:
mackoy
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111697
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MANU 3317-Notes 1
Updated:
2011-10-24 07:59:21
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Plastics
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INDUSTRY
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  1. % of Plastics in various Market Segments
    packaging = 34%

    construction = 26%

    transport = 18%

    furniture = 5 %

    electrical and electronics = 5%

    other = 12%
  2. Problems in PACKAGING
    • -being environmentally friendly
    • -reusability / recycling
    • -how to use less material
    • -very cmopetitive (low profit per production scale)
  3. 2 Types of Processors
    Primary Processors-Take raw materials (pellets, powder, resin)and convert to finished or semi-finishedproduct

    Secondary Processors-Further process (fabricate or decorate) semifinished product
  4. Advantages of Plastics
    • Corrosion and chemical resistance
    • Good thermal and electrical insulating properties
    • May be made isotropic or anisotropic
    • Good strength-to-mass ratio
    • Light (mass) weight
    • Ease of processing
    • Available in a variety of forms
    • Capable of being formed or made flexible
    • Available as transparent, translucent, or opaque
    • Available in a wide range of colors
  5. Disadvantages of Plastics
    • Dimensional instability
    • Limited useful thermal range
    • Fragility (may break, crack, or scratch easily)
    • Flammability (many burn easily)
    • Absorb moisture
    • Non-degradability (some do not decompose)
    • Subject to attack by chemicals (deteriorate)
    • Odors or chemical fumes in processing
    • Difficulty of repair (thermosets)
    • Cost (vary by family)
  6. thermoplastic vs. thermoset
    thermoplastic=resins that repeatedly soften when heated and solidify as cooled (like butter).=ex. PE, nylon

    thermoset=resins that permanently becomes solid due to chemical change when heated sufficiently (like bread).=ex. phenolics
  7. Largest volume use plastics = TLA's
    • PE
    • HDPE
    • LLDPE
    • LDPE
    • PP
    • PVC
    • PS
    • PU
    • PET
    • PA
    • ABS
    • PLA
    • PC
  8. PE
    HDPE
    LLDPE
    LDPE
    PP
    PVC
    PS
    PU
    PET
    PA
    ABS
    PLA
    PC
    • polyethylene
    • high density polyethylene
    • linear low density polyethylene
    • low density polyethylene
    • polypropylene
    • polyvinyl chloride
    • polystyrene (GP and HIPS)
    • polyurethane (TPU)
    • polyethylene terephthalate(PETE)
    • polyamides (nylon)
    • acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene
    • poly lactic acid (bioplastic)
    • polycarbonate
  9. Post Consumer Scrap (PCR) or Reclaim
    -after use by consumers and can be identified, isolated and recycled into higher end applications such as bags, flower pots, carpet, etc. Could also be composted.
  10. comingled scrap
    -mixed and colored PCR and maybe use for lower end apps
  11. Industrial scrap
    Primary recycling: scrap is putback into primary process for the same product

    Secondary recycling: processs crap is put back into less demanding applications (eg.garbage bags)
  12. Standard Recycling Codes ( No.= code)
    • 1 = PET
    • 2 = HDPE
    • 3 = V (PVC)
    • 4 = LDPE
    • 5 = PP
    • 6 = PS
    • 7 = other resins
  13. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and CFIA (CanadianFood Inspection Agency) prohibit the use of recycled plastic in food contact applications.
    ´╗┐
  14. ´╗┐´╗┐ROADBLOCKS to RECYCLING
    • Cost of collection
    • Cost of sorting and cleaning
    • Cost of reprocessing resin
    • Cost / Price relationship between recycle and virgin resins
    • Decrease in polymer properties
    • Wider physical specs: slows production
  15. Western Canadian Manufacturers
    COMPETITIVE CHALLENGES
    • Smaller operations
    • Locational disadvantage
    • International competition
  16. economies of scale
    =buying power of a country

    • weaker economies of scale (smaller operations)
    • – lower R and D budgets
    • – pay higher prices for supplies and raw material
    • – associations less developed/beneficial
    • – retaining skilled workforce (pay more $)

    • tougher to address environmentalissues:
    • - pollution control equipment costs
    • – ex. GVRD + ozone destruct systems
  17. Locational disadvantage of Manufacturers
    • –market population: smaller runs, more costly setups
    • – away from major equipment manufacturers -synergy
    • – ongoing training courses generally not local:travel $
    • – sales reps often not specialized: 'jack of alltrades'
  18. International competition (OUTSOURCING) for Manufacturers
    • Lower labor and overheads overseas offsettransportation costs and issues surroundingremote sourcing
    • Cost of raw materials often much cheaper
    • Back to the economies of scale issue
  19. BPA (Bisphenol A)
    Epoxy resins containing bisphenol A are used as coatings on theinside of almost all food and beverage cans
  20. Brief history of Plastics
  21. Natural Plastics
    •  + Parts could be (thermo)formed intocomplex shapes (combs, spoons, windows
    •  + could be ground and molded (horn,shellac)
    •  + Flexible and impact resistant
    •  - lack of consistency in material
    •  - lack of certain desirable properties (clarity,strength, etc)
  22. Vulcanization (1839)
    -adding sulphur to rubber to change the properties
  23. Early Synthetic Plastics (1907), Bakelite
    Bakelite: phenol + formaldehyde = phenolics
  24. Chronology of Platics (year)
    • 2000 yrs ago = natural plastics
    • 1907 = bakelite
    • 1927 = PVC
    • 1938 = PS and PA (nylon)
    • 1942 = PE
    • 1948 = ABS
    • 1957 = PP and PC
  25. Advantages of PVC
    • valued for its unique ability to be:
    • -clear or opaque
    • -rigid or flexible
    • -can be heat welded or solvent welded
  26. Plastics Production (Use of Oil Fuel)
    = plastis use 2% of oil (energy fuel)
  27. Resin?
    = plastic pellets
  28. Gaylord?
    = box container for pellets
  29. Force Majeure?
    = state where a manufacturer cannot meet the demand or order of the customer due to unavoidable circumstances such as natural disaster, company will declare Force Majuere
  30. Pelletizing vs. Palletizing
    pelletizing = grinding used plastics into pieces of pellets

    palletizing = using pallets to stock

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