vocab26

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pcgarcia
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111718
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vocab26
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2011-10-24 09:29:48
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vocabulary chpt26 in medic text
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  1. abscess
    a collection of pus in a sac, formed by necrotic tissues and an accumulation of white blood cells
  2. adventitious
    a type of breath sound that occurs in addition to the normal breath sounds; ex are crackles and wheezes
  3. alveoli
    sac-like units at the end of the bronchioles where gas exchage takes place (singular; alveolus)
  4. angioedema
    an allergic reaction that may cause profound swelling of the tongue and lips
  5. arytenoid cartilages
    one of the pair, pitcher-shaped cartilages at the back of the laryns, at the upper border of the cricoid cartilage
  6. atelectasis
    collapse of the alveolar air spaces of the lungs
  7. beta-2 agonists
    parmacologic agents taht stimulate the beta-2 receptor sites found in smooth muscle; inclue common bronchodilators like albuterol and levalbuterol
  8. botulism
    poisoning from eating food containing botulinum toxin
  9. bronchospasm
    severe constiction of teh bronchial tree
  10. cape cyanosis
    deep cyanosis of the face and neck and accross the chest and back; associated with little or no blood flow; it is particularly ominous
  11. carina
    point at which the trachea bifucates into the right and left mainstem bronchi
  12. carpopedal spam
    contorted position of the hand in which the fingers flex in a clawlike attitude and the thumb curls toward the palm
  13. chronic bronchitis
    chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is asspciated with excess mucous prodution that results from overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airway
  14. cilia
    hairlike microtubule projections on the surface of a cell that can move materials over the cell surface
  15. cor pulmonale
    heart disease that develops secondary to a chronic lung disease, usually affecting primarily the right side of teh heart
  16. crackles
    abnormal breath sounds taht have a fine, crackling quality; previously called rales
  17. cicoid cartilate
    ringlike cartilage forming the lower and back part of teh larynx
  18. cricothyroid membrance
    membrane between the cricoid and thyroid cartilages of the larynx
  19. croup
    common disease of childhood characterized by spasm of the larynx and resulting upper airway obstruction
  20. dead space
    the portion of the tidal volume taht does not reach the alveoli and thus does not participate in gas exchange
  21. diuresis
    secretion of large amounts of urine by the kidney
  22. edema
    a condition in which excess fluid accumulates in tissues, manifested by swelling
  23. emphysema
    infiltration of any tissues by air or gas; a chronic obstuctive pulmonary disease charcterized by distention of the alveoli and destructive changes in the lung parenchyma
  24. end-tidal carbon dioxide
    the numeric percentage of carbon dioxide contained the last few milliliters of teh pts exhaled air
  25. epistaxis
    nosebleed
  26. fowler's position
    a sitting position with head elevated to 90 (sitting straight up)
  27. glottis
    opening between the vocal cords
  28. goblet cells
    cells that produce a protective mucous lining
  29. greenfield filter
    a mesh filter placed in the inferior vena cava to catch blood clots in patietns who are at high risk of pulmonary embolus
  30. guillain-barre syndrome
    a disease of unknon etiology taht causes paralysis that progresses from the feet to the head (ascending paralysis). If the paralysis reaches the diaphragm, the patient may require respiratory support
  31. hemoglobin
    oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells. when hemoglobin has absorbed oxygen in the lungs, it is bright red and is called oxyhemoglobin. after hemoglobin has given up its oxygen in the tissues, it is purple and is called reduced hemoglobin
  32. hempotysis
    coughing up blood
  33. hering-breuer reflex
    the nervous system mechanism that terminates inhalation and prevents lung overexpansion
  34. hypoventiale
    to not move adequate volumes of gas; underventilate
  35. hypoxic drive
    a situation in which a person's stimulus to breathhe come from a fall in Pa02 ratehr than normal stimulus, a rise in Pa02
  36. jugular venous distention
    the visible bulging of the jufular veins when the pt is in semi-Fowler's or full Fowlers position. This is indicative of inadequate blood movement through the heart/lungs
  37. Kussmaul repirations
    respiratory pattern characteristic of the person with diabetes who is in ketoacidosis, with marked hyperpnea and tachypnea
  38. larynx
    the organ of voice production
  39. metasis
    change in location of a disease from one organ or part of the body to another. often used to describe a cancer that has migrated to pther parts of the body
  40. monophonic
    the sound of one note during wheezing, caused by the vibration of a single bronchus
  41. oropharynx
    the area behind the base of the tongue between the soft palate and the upper portion of the epiglottis
  42. orthopnea
    severe dyspnea experienced when recumbent and relieved by sitting up or standing up
  43. palatine tonsils
    one of the three sets of lymphatic organs that comprise the tonsils; located in the back of the throat, on each side of the posterior opening of the oral vacity; help protext the body from bacteria introced into the mouth and nose
  44. parenchyma
    the substaqnce of a glad or solid organ
  45. paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
    severe shortness of breath occuring at night after several hours of recumency, during which fluid pools in the lungs
  46. piriform fossa
    hollow pockets on the lateral sides of the glottic opening
  47. pleural effusion
    excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural spance
  48. pneumonitis
    inflammation of the lung. implies lung inflammation from an irritant such as a chemical, dust, or radiation, or from aspiration. when lung inflammation is caused by an infectious agent, it would typicalled be called pneumonia
  49. polycythemia
    the production of more red blood cells over time, making the blood tich; a characteristic of people who have chronic lung disease and chronic hypoxia
  50. polyphonic
    the sound of mulitle notes during wheezing, cause by vibrations of many bronchi
  51. pseudomembrane
    inflammation of the lung. implies lung inflammation from an irritant such as a chemical, dust, or radiation, or from apiration. when lung inflammation is caused by an infectious agent, it would typically be called pneumonia.
  52. polycythemia
    the production of more red blood cells over time, making the blood thick, a characteristic of people who have chronic lung disease and chronic hypoxia
  53. pulsus paradoxus
    weakening or loss of a palpable pulse during inhalation, characteristic of cardiac tamponade and severe asthma
  54. purulent
    full of pus; having the character of pus
  55. rales
    old terminology for abnormal breath sound that have a fine, crackling quality; now called crackles
  56. reactive airway disease
    a term used to describe any condition that causes hyperreactive bronchioles and bronchospasm
  57. retraction
    drawing in the intercostal muscles and the muscles above the clavicles in repiratiory distress
  58. rhoncus
    a coarse, low-pitched breath sound heard in patients who have chronic mucus in the airways (plural: rhonchi)
  59. sellick maneuver
    pressure applied over the cricoid to seal off the esophagus and prevent reflux of gastic contents
  60. shunt
    situation in which a portion of the output of the right side of the heart reaches the left side of the heart without being oxygenated in the lungs; may be caused by atelectasis, pulomoary edema, ora variety of other conditions. in hemodialysis, an anastomis between a peripheral artery and vein
  61. smooth muscle
    nonstriated involunaty muscle found in vessel walls, glands, and the gastrointestinal tract
  62. snoring
    noise made on inhalation when the upper airway is partially obstructed by the tongue
  63. spacer
    a device that collects medication as it is released from the canister of a metered-dose inhaler, allowing more to be delievered to the lungs and less to be lost to the environment
  64. status asthmaticus
    a severe, prolonged asthma attack that cannot be broken with epi
  65. stidor
    harsh, high-pitched sound associated with severe upper airway obstruction, such as that caused by laryngeal edema
  66. surfactant
    a liquid protien substance that coats the alveioli in the lungs
  67. tatile fremitus
    vibrations in the chest as the patient breathes
  68. tidal volume
    the amount of air inhaled or exhaled during one breath
  69. tracheostomy
    surgically opening the trachea to create an airway
  70. tuberculosis
    a chronic bacterial disease caused by mycobaterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs but can also affect other organse suck as the brain or kidneys
  71. turbinates
    a set of bony convolutions formed by the conchae in the nasopharynx that help to maintain smooth airflow

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