Pharm 3 - Cardio slide 2.txt

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Author:
pcgarcia
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111731
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Pharm 3 - Cardio slide 2.txt
Updated:
2011-10-24 10:36:16
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not mine pharm cardio
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not mine
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  1. P-wave
    produced as impulse from SA node and causes atrial contraction
  2. P-R interval
    time between atrial depolarization and the start of ventricular conduction (depolarization)
  3. QRS complex
    conduction of impulse through the bundle of HIS to Perkinje fibers causing contraction of ventricles
  4. S-T segment
    heart's resting period
  5. T-wave
    ventricular repolarization
  6. chronotropic
    heart rate
  7. inotropic
    force of contraction
  8. dromotropic
    heart rhythm (conduction)
  9. preload
    volume of blood in ventricles at end of diastole (end-diastolic pressure)
  10. preload increased in:
    • hypervolemia
    • regurgitation of cardiac valves
  11. afterload
    resistance left ventricle must overcome to circulate blood
  12. afterload increased in:
    • hypertension
    • vasoconstriction
  13. increased afterload =
    increased cardiac workload
  14. ACE inhibitors
    • angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    • ends in -pril
  15. ACE inhibitor meds
    • captopril (Capoten)
    • enalapril (Vasotec)
    • benzapril (Lotensin)
  16. ACE inhibitor action
    • blocks ACE from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, leading to decrease in BP and aldosterone production, and small increase in serum potassium levels with sodium and fluid loss
    • decreases peripheral vascular resistance without increased cardiac output, rate, or contractility
  17. ACE inhibitor effects
    • hacking cough
    • dizziness
    • orthostatic hypotension
    • GI distress
  18. ACE contraindications
    • allergies
    • impaired renal function
    • pregnancy/lactation
  19. ACE cautions
    heart failure
  20. ACE nursing responsibilities
    • assess BP prior to administration (hold for BP 90-100/60)
    • administer on empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals
  21. ARB (angiotensin II receptor blockers) action
    • blocks binding of angiotensin II to specific tissue receptors
    • blocks vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone
  22. ARB nursing considerations
    • take with food
    • watch for syncope, cough, alopecia
    • discontinue if pregnant/lactation
  23. ARB effects
    dizziness, headache, diarrhea, URI, cough, fever, muscle weakness, hypotension
  24. beta-blocker meds
    • end in -lol (haha, I blocked you)
    • propranolol (Inderal)
    • atenolol (Tenormin)
    • metoprolol (Lopressor)
  25. beta-blocker action
    blocks beta receptors in the heart causing decreased heart rate, force of contraction, and rate of A-V conduction
  26. beta-blocker effects
    • bradycardia
    • lethargy
    • GI disturbances
    • CHF
    • decreased BP
    • depression
  27. beta-1 blockers affect:
    heart (1 heart)
  28. beta-2 blockers affect:
    lungs (2 lungs)
  29. beta-blocker mneumonic
    • B - Bronchospasms - do not give to patients with bronchoconstrictive disease
    • E - Elicits decrease in cardiac output and contractility
    • T - Treats hypertension
    • A - AV conduction decreases - treats arrhythmias
  30. can you discontinue beta-blockers abruptly?
    NO - causes rebound angina, confusion in elderly and psychosis

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