Botany Chapter 6

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Botany Chapter 6
2011-10-24 11:31:40
Botany Study Guide Chapter

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  1. Cells produced by stem meristem become what?
    shoot sytems with branches and leaves
  2. Woody twigs consists of what?
    An axis with attached leaves
  3. Define node?
    Area of stem where leaves are attached
  4. Nodes can be
    • *alternate or spiral
    • *opposite= attached in pairs
    • *whorled= in groups of 3 or more
  5. Define Internode?
    Stem region between nodes
  6. Define Axil?
    angle between petiole and stem
  7. where are the axillary buds located?
    in the axil
  8. Axillary buds will become what?
    branches or flowers in flowering plants
  9. What do bud scales do?
    protect the buds
  10. Where are the terminal buds located?
    at twig tip
  11. What makes the twig longer?
  12. What determines the age of an twig?
    bud scale scars
  13. Define stipules?
    paird, often leaflike appendages at base of a leaf
  14. What type of tress lose all of their leaves annually?
    • deciduous treees and shrubs
    • --after leaves fall, they have axillary buds with leaf scars below
  15. What are bundle scars?
    they mark food and water conducting tissue within leaf scars
  16. Where is the apical meristem located?
    at the stem tip
  17. Whats does the apical meristem do?
    • *Contributes to increase in stem lenght
    • *Dormant before growing seasons begin
    • *Are protected by bud scales and by leaf primordia
  18. What is leaf primordia?
    tiny embryonic leaves that develop into mature leaves
  19. Apical meristems cells form what 3 primary meristems?
    • Protoderm
    • Procambium
    • Ground Meristem
  20. What is protoderm?
    gives rise to the epidermis
  21. What is procambium?
    produces the xylem and pholem
  22. What is ground meristem?
    produces the pith and cortex, both composed of parenchyma cells
  23. Leaf primordia and bud pimordia develop into what?
    mature leaves and buds
  24. What are traces?
    • *strand of xylem and pholem
    • *traces branch offf from cylinder of xylem and pholem, and enter leaf or bud
  25. Each traces leaves what?
    leaves a gap filled with parenchyma in the cylinder of vascualr tissue, forming leaf gap or bud gap
  26. Narrow band of cells between the primary xylem and primary pholem may become what?
    vasuclar cambium
  27. Cells produced by the vascular cambium become what?
    components of secondary xylem towards center and secondary pholem towards surface
  28. In plants the cork cambim produces what type of cells?
    • corks cells with suberin and phelloderm cells
    • *whose function is to reduce the watter loss and protect stem against injury
  29. What are lenticels?
    parenchyma cells in cork for exchange of gases
  30. What is stele?
    central cylinder of primary xylem, primary pholem and pith (if present)
  31. What is prostele?
    • solid core, pholem surrounds xylem
    • *in primitive seed plants, whisk ferns, club mosses and ferns
  32. What is sipphonosteles?
    • tubular with pith in center
    • *common in ferns
  33. What is eusteles?
    • discrete vascular bundles
    • *in flowering plants and conifers
  34. Define cotyledons?
    seed leaves attached to embryonic stems
  35. Define dicotyledons?
    flowering plants that develop from seeds having two cotyledons
  36. Define Monoctyledons?
    flowering plants that develop from seeds with a single cotyledon
  37. What are annuals?
    • plants that die after going from seed to maturity within one growing season
    • *usually green, herbaceous plants
    • *most monocots are annuals, but many dicots are to
    • *tissues largely primary
  38. Herbaceous discots have discrete vascular bundles arrange how?
    in a cylinder
  39. Where does the vascular cambium arise?
    between the primary xylem and primary pholem
  40. Wood has what type of xylem?
    secondary xylem
  41. Some difference in wood are?
    *vascular cambium and cork cambium are active all year
  42. What is an annual ring?
    one years growth of xylem
  43. Vascular rays consist of what?
    • parenchyma cells that function in lateral conduction of nutrients and
    • water
  44. What are xylem rays?
    part of ray within xylem
  45. What are pholem rays?
    part of ray through pholem
  46. What are tyloses?
    • protrusions of adjacent parenchyma cells into conducting cells of xylem
    • *they prevent conduction of water
    • *resins, gums, and tannins accumulate, and darken wood, forming heartwood
  47. What is heartwood?
    older, darker wood in cneter
  48. What is sapwood?
    lighter, still functioning xylem closet to cambium
  49. What is softwood?
    • wood of conifers
    • *no fibers or vessel elements
  50. What is hard wood?
    wood of dicot trees
  51. What are resin canals?
    • tubelike canals scattered throughout xylem and other tissues
    • *they are lined with specialized cells that secrete resin
    • *common in conifers
    • *in some tropical flowering plants
  52. What is bark?
    • tissues outside of the vascular cambium
    • *mature bark may consist of alternating layers of crushed pholem and cork
  53. What are laticifers?
    • Ducts found mostly in phloem that have latex secreting cells
    • *example: rubber, chicle (chewing gum), and ,morphine
  54. Monocots stems have neither of what?
    vasuclar cambium nor a cork cambium
  55. In monocot stems where are the primary xylem and phloem found?
    in discrete vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem
  56. In monocots vascular bundles are typically what?
    • *2 large vessels with several small vessels
    • *first formed xylem cells stretch and collapse, which leaves irregualarly shaped air spaces
    • *pholem consists of sieve tubes and companion cells
    • *vascular bundles surrounded by sheath and sclerenchyma cells
  57. Specialized Stems
  58. What is rhizomes?
    • a specialized horizontal stems that grow below ground and have long to short internodes
    • *some grasses and ferns
  59. What are runners?
    • a specialized horizontal stem that grows above ground and have long inrernodes
    • *strawberries
  60. What are stolons?
    • a specialized stem the is produced beneath the surface of the ground and tend to grow in differnt directions
    • *potato
  61. What are tubers?
    • sowllen, fleshy underground specialized stems
    • * they store food
  62. What are the eyes on a potato called?
  63. What are bulbs?
    • large buds surrounded by numerous fleshy leaves, with a small stem at lower end
    • *they store food
    • *ex: onions, lilies, hyacinths, tulips
  64. What are corms?
    • they resemble bulbs, but composed almost entirely of stem of stem tissue, with papery leaves
    • *they store food
    • *crocus and gladiolus
  65. What are cladophylls/
    • flattened leaf like stems
    • *ex: greenbriars, some orchids, prickly pear cactus
  66. In living trees where does half of the wood weight come from?
    50% of the wood weight come from water content
  67. What is the dry part of the wood composed of?
    about 60-75% cellulose and about 15-25% ligin
  68. What is density?
    weight per unit volume
  69. What is durablility/
    • ability to withstand decay
    • *ex: tannins and oils repel decay organisms
  70. Types of Sawing
  71. What is radially cut (quarter sawed)?
    boards show annual rings in side view
  72. What is tangentially cut (plain sawed or slab cut)?
    • boards are cut perpendicular to rays
    • *shows annual rings as irregular band of light and dark streaks
  73. What are knots?
    bases of lost braches covered by new annual rings produced by the cambium
  74. What is veneer?
    thin sheet of desirable wood glued to cheaper lumber
  75. What is pulp?
    • the second most widespread use of wood
    • *ex: paper, synthetic fibers, plastics, and linoleum