HUN Exam2 Metabolism

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bkheath
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111771
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HUN Exam2 Metabolism
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2011-10-24 20:57:30
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HUN Exam2 Metabolism
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HUN Exam2 Metabolism
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  1. ATP=
    adenosine triphosphate
  2. Hydrogen & electron carriers are ___
    coenzymes
  3. ___ carry H+ and e-s from catabolic rxns to e- transport chain
    Coenzymes
  4. What coenzyme is made from niacin?
    NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
  5. NAD+ =
    nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  6. NAD+ + 2H --->
    NADH + H+
  7. What coenzyme is made from riboflavin?
    FAD+
  8. FAD=
    flavin adenine dinucleotide
  9. FAD+ + 2H --->
    FADH2
  10. Glycolysis:
    1 glucose --> ______
    NAD -->_____
    Net ___ ATP
    Aerobic or anaerobic?
    • 2 pyruvate molecs
    • NADH (H+ and e-s transferred)
    • 2
    • Anaerobic
  11. Pyruvate ---> ______ process:
    produces ___ and ___
    Requires coenzyme:
    • acetyl coA
    • CO2, NADH
    • TPP coenzyme (thiamine)
  12. TPP coenzyme correlates w/what vitamin?
    Thiamine
  13. Citric Acid Cycle:
    acetyl coA + ____ ---> _____
    oxaloacetic acid ---> citric acid
  14. What is regenerated during Krebs?
    oxaloaceti acid (OAA)
  15. What makes oxaloacetic acid?
    pyruvate from glycolysis
  16. Made/released from Krebs (5)
    • 2 CO2
    • 3 NADH + H+
    • 1 GTP
    • 1 FADH2
    • 1 ATP
  17. E- transport chain:
    ____ and ___ deliver H+ and e-s
    H+ ---> ___
    • NADH, FADH2
    • H20
  18. In general end products of glucose metabolism are:
    • CO2
    • H20
    • ATP
  19. When TGs are broken down, ___ can be converted directly into pyruvate, which is then converted to ____
    • glycerol
    • glucose
  20. Process of converting pyruvate (from TG) to glucose for energy
    Gluconeogenesis
  21. When glycerol is broken down, ___ is made
    When FAs are broken down, ___ is made
    • glucose
    • acetyl coA
  22. Process of breaking down FAs for energy
    Beta-oxidation
  23. Can be used to synthesize new glucose or fat for storage or body proteins
    Amino acids
  24. Deamination
    Removal of ____ (__) from C skeleton
    Becomes ___ which combines w/CO2 to make ____
    • amino group (NH2)
    • NH3
    • urea
  25. Urea is formed in ___
    liver
  26. After deamination, the C skeleton enters catabolic pathways as any of the following 3
    • pyruvate ("glucogenic" AA's)
    • acetyl coA
    • Kreb's cycle intermediate compounds
  27. During ketosis, keto bodies are formed from ___
    acetyl coA
  28. Ketosis can provide ___% of brain's fuel during starvation
    70
  29. Where does gluconeogenesis take place?
    • Liver 90%
    • Kidneys 10%
  30. What is new glucose made from?
    glycerol, glucogenic amino acids, lactate (anaerobic)
  31. Steps of gluconeogenesis:
    glycerol, AA, or lactate converted to ____ which is converted to ____
    ___ and ___ are needed
    • pyruvate
    • glucose
    • ATP, NADH
  32. Glycogenesis converts ___ to glycogen and takes place mostly in ___, also in ___
    • glucose
    • liver, muscle
  33. The synthesis of TG is called
    lipogenesis
  34. TG's are synthesized from ____ (3) which are converted to ____, which requires ___
    • FAs, AAs, alcohol
    • acetyl coA
    • ATP
  35. To make proteins, transamination:
    pyruvate ---> ____
    alpha-ketogluterate ---> ____
    oxaloacetate ---> ___
    • alanine
    • glutamate
    • aspartate
  36. During fasting, body initially uses ___ and ___ for energy, but during prolonged fasting ___ is primarily used for energy, then ___ is used and ___ occurs
    • glycogen, fat
    • fat
    • body protein
    • ketosis

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