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Hydrogen & electron carriers are ___
___ carry H+ and e-s from catabolic rxns to e- transport chain
What coenzyme is made from niacin?
NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
What coenzyme is made from riboflavin?
flavin adenine dinucleotide
1 glucose --> ______
Net ___ ATP
Aerobic or anaerobic?
- 2 pyruvate molecs
- NADH (H+ and e-s transferred)
Pyruvate ---> ______ process:
produces ___ and ___
- acetyl coA
- CO2, NADH
- TPP coenzyme (thiamine)
TPP coenzyme correlates w/what vitamin?
Citric Acid Cycle:
acetyl coA + ____ ---> _____
oxaloacetic acid ---> citric acid
What is regenerated during Krebs?
oxaloaceti acid (OAA)
What makes oxaloacetic acid?
pyruvate from glycolysis
Made/released from Krebs (5)
- 2 CO2
- 3 NADH + H+
- 1 GTP
- 1 FADH2
- 1 ATP
E- transport chain:
____ and ___ deliver H+ and e-s
H+ ---> ___
In general end products of glucose metabolism are:
When TGs are broken down, ___ can be converted directly into pyruvate, which is then converted to ____
Process of converting pyruvate (from TG) to glucose for energy
When glycerol is broken down, ___ is made
When FAs are broken down, ___ is made
Process of breaking down FAs for energy
Can be used to synthesize new glucose or fat for storage or body proteins
Removal of ____ (__) from C skeleton
Becomes ___ which combines w/CO2 to make ____
Urea is formed in ___
After deamination, the C skeleton enters catabolic pathways as any of the following 3
- pyruvate ("glucogenic" AA's)
- acetyl coA
- Kreb's cycle intermediate compounds
During ketosis, keto bodies are formed from ___
Ketosis can provide ___% of brain's fuel during starvation
Where does gluconeogenesis take place?
What is new glucose made from?
glycerol, glucogenic amino acids, lactate (anaerobic)
Steps of gluconeogenesis:
glycerol, AA, or lactate converted to ____ which is converted to ____
___ and ___ are needed
Glycogenesis converts ___ to glycogen and takes place mostly in ___, also in ___
The synthesis of TG is called
TG's are synthesized from ____ (3) which are converted to ____, which requires ___
- FAs, AAs, alcohol
- acetyl coA
To make proteins, transamination:
pyruvate ---> ____
alpha-ketogluterate ---> ____
oxaloacetate ---> ___
During fasting, body initially uses ___ and ___ for energy, but during prolonged fasting ___ is primarily used for energy, then ___ is used and ___ occurs
- glycogen, fat
- body protein