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  1. Monocular Cues to 3d space
    • Relative size
    • Relative height
    • Texture gradient
    • Familiar size
    • Aerial perspective
    • Linear perspective
    • Vanishing point
  2. Relative Size
    we assume that smaller objects are farther away from us than larger objects
  3. Relative Height
    • Below horizon objects higher in vidusl field appear to be farther away
    • Above horizon objects lower in visual field appear to be farther away
  4. Texture Gradient
    Items of same size from smaller images when they are farther away
  5. Familiar Size
    a cue based on knowledge of the typical size of object
  6. Aerial Perspective
    • light scatters when it travels through the atmosphere
    • This scattering of light makes distant objects look fainter, blue, and less distinct than close objects
  7. Linear perspective
    lines that are parallel in the 3d world will appear to converge in a 2d image
  8. Vanishing point
    point at which parallel lines will meet
  9. Pictoral Depth Cue
    A cue to distance or depth used by artists to depict 3d depth in 2d pictures
  10. Anamorphosis
    use of pictoral depth cues to create a 2d image that looks 3d only when viewd from a particular image
  11. Motion Parallax
    relative motion of objects provides distance information.
  12. 2 parts to motion parallax
    • 1a. objects in front offixation point move in the opposite direction to you
    • 1b. objects behind fixation point move in the same direction as you
    • 2. Objects closer to fixation point move more slowly than objects farther from our fixation point
  13. Accomodation
    • The amount ofmuscle contraction needed to change shape of the lens
    • gives us distance information
  14. 2 Binocular cues
    • 1. convergence
    • 2. binocular disparity
  15. Convergence
    • amount of muscle tension used to move eyes to an object
    • can be used as a distance cue
    • close toobservation
  16. Binocular disparity (stereopsis)
    • Each eye sees a slightly different view of the world
    • This difference is a distance cue
    • The red line is exactly the same distance from fovea
  17. Horopter
    the area of space where other objects will also fall on corresponding points
  18. Corresponding points
    the retinal images of a single object are formed at the same distance from the fovea in each eye
  19. The horoptor has three different situations
    • 1. corresponding points
    • 2. non corresponding points
    • 3. panum's fusion area
  20. Non corresponding points
    • objects that do not fall on the horopter create non corresponding points on each retina
    • The further away, the more disparity (blurry)
    • double vision
  21. Panum's Fusion Area
    • Small region surrounding horoptor
    • in PFA objects fall on non corresponding points, yet dont create double images
  22. Objects that arent on the horoptor or not in PFA will produce;
    double images
  23. Crossed Disparity
    • Created by objects in front of the horoptor
    • Images in front of horoptor are displaced
    • --To the left of the fovea in the right eye
    • --To the right of the fovea in the left eye
    • This doesnt happen when image is gehind horoptor its more orderly
  24. Uncrossed disparity
    • Created by objects behind horoptor (there is no crossing disparity in eyes)
    • Images behind the horoptor are displaced...
    • --The right of fovea in the right eye
    • --The left of fovea in the left eye
    • (Finger test - 1 farther away/1 closer)
  25. 3d glasses
    • Anaglph glasses
    • Polarized glasses
    • Shutter glasses
  26. Anaglph glasses
    cheap blue and red glasses
  27. Polarized glasses
    • puts color back in to the film
    • Subtract all light waves that are coming from one direction
  28. Free Fusion
    Converging (crossing) or diverging (uncrossing) the eyes in order to view a stereogram without a stereogram
  29. Stereoblindness
    • Inability to use binocular disparity as a depth cue
    • Cant see the picture inside the magic eye picture
    • --Can result from a childhood visual disorder, such as strabismus, in which the 2 eyes are misalligned
  30. 3 types of Binocular Disparity Cells
    • 1. No binocular disparity
    • 2. Crossed disparity
    • 3. Uncrossed disparity

    A cell only responds to a certain kind and amount of disparity
  31. Combining depth cues:
    Illusions and the Construction ofspace
    • our visual systems take into account depth cues when interpreting the size of objects
    • The hering illusion
    • Ames Room-2 teddy bears
    • Ames window
    • Muller-Lyer illusion (arrows)
  32. Ponzo Illusion
    man on train tracks-actually the same size
  33. Reversible Figures/Unstable Figures
    • pictures that can be taken two or more different ways
    • *Nesser cube
    • *Duck rabbit
    • *Seeing black outline figure in a vase
    • *Tessellation
  34. Impossible Figures
    • Elephant with too many feet
    • Never ending staircase
    • WEird triangle
    • Figures that could never happen or be built/done
Card Set
Space perceptiom & Binocular Vision
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