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Define of Olympism
It’s a philosophy of life. It combines the balance of body, will, and mind.
Identify the name of the location of the Ancient Olympic Games
Peninsula of Peloponnesus
Identify the date of the beginning of the
Ancient Games and the end of the Ancient Games
776 B.C. to 393 A.D.
Describe the religious underpinnings for the holding of the Ancient Games and for the abolishment of the Ancient Games
The ancient games were a celebration in honor of Zeus. Emperor Theodosius I, the first Christian Greek ruler, abolished the games because they were a pagan ritual. They were contrary to the first commandment.
Describe the issues related to professionalism, symbolism, and eligibility in the Ancient Games
To participate people need to be male, a free Greek citizen, and not committed murder.
Name the important deities associated with the Games
- Zeus- considered lord of all gods
- Hara- Wife of Zeus
- Hercules- Zeus’s son
- Athena- Zeus’s daughter
- Apollo- Zeus’s son
Describe the Greek perspective on team sports and
competition for women in the ancient Games
Team sports were not present. Greeks were trying to find the single best athlete. Unmarried women were only allowed to compete in the festival of Hara
Identify and describe the importance of the
Festival of Hera
- It was the event honoring Hera where unmarried women
Identify the various athletic events associated
with the ancient Games
- -two foot races
- -the pentathlon
- -horse races
- -footrace in armor (signaled the end to the games)
Identify the eligibility requirements to participate in the
Must be male, not a slave, and could not have committed
murder or heresy.
Identify Pierre de Coubertin and his role in the modern
He founded the modern Olympic Games in 1894. First Modern Games were held in Athens.
Describe the political and social influences that influenced
the revival of the modern Games
- -Industrialization created leisure timed.
- -Capitalism created an upward socioeconomic mobility.
- -Muscular Christianity encouraged physical development.
Describe the early 20th century definition of
amateur & professional athlete v. the ancient Games
Describe the importance of the Franco-Prussian War as it pertained to the founding of the Modern Olympic movement:
Franco-Prussian War – France lost germany in the war and Pierre Coubertin thought that it was because the men lacked vigor. He wanted to restore glory to France so he studied the physical education of British, German, and American children. He believed that their programs made well rounded and vigorous men.
Describe the importance of the Industrialization of Western Europe in the 1800’s as it pertained to the founding of the Modern Olympic
- it created more leisure time.
Describe the importance of the Greek revival in the 1800’s as it pertained to the founding of the Modern Olympic movement:
- there grew a worldwide interests in all things “Classical Greek”
Describe the importance Spread of the British Empire in the 1800’s as it pertained to the founding of the Modern Olympic movement:
- The British had an educational system that included physical education. This was thought to be part of the reason for their great success as a world power.
Describe the origins of the various Olympic symbols (e.g., rings, flag, etc.)
- 5 Rings- symbolize the 5 continents that send athletes. (No & So America considered one)
5 Colors- Every country’s flag has at least one color.
Olympic Torch – The flame is a symbol of peace. Flame is lit from the sun at the temple of Hera.
Identify and describe the role of Dr. William Penny Brookes to the Modern Olympic movement
Brookers campaigned to get physical education as part of school curriculum in England. The Olympic society in Brookers town of Wenlock staged mock games for Coubertin. Those games and discussions with Brooker inspired Coubertin to form the IOC and Modern Olympic Games.
Identify and describe the importance of the Congress to Revive the Olympic Games
Identify the names of the presidents of the IOC in order of service before WWII
- Demetrious Vikelas, Greece 1894 - 1896
- Pierre de Coubertin, France 1896 - 1925
- Henri Baillet-Latour, Belgium 1925 - 1942
Identify the date, location, and explain the reason for the
selection of each location of the modern Olympic Games before WWII
- 1896 - Athens, Greece
- 1900 - Paris, France
- 1904 - St. Louis, United States
- 1908 - London, United Kingdom
- 1912 - Stockholm, Sweden
- 1916 - Scheduled for Berlin, Germany*
- 1920 - Antwerp, Belgium
- 1924 - Paris, France
- 1928 - Amsterdam, Netherlands
- 1932 - Los Angeles, United States
- 1936 - Berlin, Germany
Why were the 1896 games held in Athens?
- It was the nation that started ancient Olympics
What were the 1900 games held in Paris?
Because It was Coubertin’s country and he’d always wanted to host the games
Why were the 1904 games held in St. Loius?
Because the Olympic games had become really popular in the USA. Since they were winning a majority of the medals.
What were the issues of amateurism in hosting
and staging the modern Olympics?
Only people who were ruled amateur were allowed to play. This excluded any professional who received money as an athlete or P.E. instructor.
What were the issues of team sports in hosting and staging the modern Olympics?
Coubertin opposed team sports but with the popularity of soccer team sports began to get admitted into the Games
What was the issue of competition for women in hosting and staging the modern Olympics?
Coubertin also opposed the inclusion of women in the Games. He viewed the games as an elite level of competition. He grudgingly allowed women to participate.
What were the issues of the definition of a country in hosting and staging the modern Olympics?
There were places such as British colonies that wanted represent themselves and not Britain. In the end the IOC passed on the decision of deciding what a country was. 4.31.1 – In the Olympic Charter, the expression “country” means an independent state recognized by the international community (i.e., United Nations)
What was the early 20th century definition of an
amateur and professional athlete?
Professional was Working class, “mechanic, artisan, or labourer”, andnot just strictly defined in terms of monetary gain for performance. Amateurs were “gentlemen” who did not compete for money.
Identify and describe the importance of the Spanish Civil War as it pertains to the hosting and staging of the modern Olympic Games before WW II?
It caused the 1936 games in Barcelona to be cancelled.
Identify and describe the importance of the Boxer Rebellion as it pertained to the hosting and staging of the modern Olympic Games before WW II:
Which winter type games were already played in summer?
Figure skating and ice hockey
Which countries opposed the winter games?
Scandinavian countries because they were already the winter “Nordic Games” every 4 years.
Where were the first Olympic games held?
In Chamonix, France. From Jan 25-Feb 5. There were no other candidate countries.
Which games were the first to award medals and have a flag raising ceremony?
The 1906 interim (intercalated) games in Athens.
Which two major events caused the US to get involved in WWI?
In 1915 Germany sank the British’s Lusitania killing 128 Americans on board.
Identify and describe the importance the Interim Games of 1906 and the Inter-Allied Games of 1919.
The 1906 Athens flag raising ceremony signaled the thought of nationalism in the Olympic Games. The victorious Allied-Countries staged a mock-Olympic style games in Paris as part of their victory. This further demonstrated the interconnections of politics and the Olympics.
What were the financial reasons the US got involved in WWI?
- They determined that it was in the US’s economic
- interest to have Britain win since we had loaned them $2.3 billion.
Where and why were the IOC headquarters moved in 1915?
They were moved to Lausanne, Switzerland because they’ve always maintained neutral roles during wars.
What happened to the 1916 games?
They were cancelled.
Who refused to agree with the German IOC expulsions?
Cubertain because he had German friends even though he still hated Germany.
What were the effects on germany in the IOC for being
involved in WWI?
There were strong anti-german feelings within the IOC. The IOC called for the expulsion of all German IOC members once the war began