Card Set Information

2011-10-24 16:17:22
Cultural Geography

Chapters 4,6,8
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  1. Habit?
    is a repetitive act that a particular individual performs, such as dressing
  2. Custom?
    is a repetitive act of a group, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of a group
  3. Hearth Area?
    Center of innovation. (starting area) where is originated
  4. Folk?
    • Traditional, small groups living in rural areas. spreads slowly through people. Through migration
  5. Popular?
    found in large, societies that share certain habits. spreads rapidly through networks. through electronics
  6. Universalizing Religion
    attemps to appeal to all people, not just those living in a particular location
  7. Ethnic Religion
    concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely based on physical characteristics of a particular location
  8. Monotheism
    existence of only 1 god
  9. Polytheism
    existence of many gods
  10. Cosmogony
    a set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe
  11. Branch
    a large and fundamental division within a branch of religion
  12. Denomination
    a division within a branch of a religion
  13. Sect
    a relatively small denominational group that has broken away from an established church
  14. Universalizing Religions are?
    Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
  15. Ethnic Religions are?
    Hinduism, Judaism, All Animistic Religions
  16. Christianity branches?
    catholicism, protestantism, eastern orthodox
  17. catholic- information
    • Large branch headed by pope
    • 7 sacrements (very traditional)
    • baptism, marriage, communion, Saints
    • hierarchical
  18. Christianity percentage in western hemisphere?
  19. Protestants -information
    • reformation era
    • no pope needed (no hierarchy)
    • Grace through forgiveness (instead of sacraments)
    • Spread through N Europe and England
  20. Eastern Orthodox- Info
    • 5th century split
    • rivalry between pope and patriarch of constintinople
    • Rejected roman catholicism doctrine (1054)
    • National churches, Russian, greek
  21. Islam Origin Diffusion?
    • Mecca, Muhammad (profit)
    • Universalizing
  22. Islam Branches?
    • Sunni (majority)
    • Shiite
  23. Islam Precepts?
    • submission to the will of God (allah)
    • Holy book Koran (Qu'ran) built on old test
    • Five pillars
  24. Five pillars
    • Creed "there is no god but Allah"
    • Pray 5 times facing mecca
    • give to the poor
    • Moorish of Rammadan
    • Pilgrimage to mecca
  25. Judaism Origin Diffusion
    Ethnic Religion (origin of christianity)
  26. Judaism info
    • One God
    • torah (5 chap. of Bible)
    • prophesy of Moses
    • Messiah yet to come
    • sacrifices
  27. Diaspora?
    Romans forced Jews to disperse throughout the world
  28. Ghetto
    Neighborhood in city only inhabited by Jews
  29. Hinduism Origin and Diffusion
    • Unknown
    • Exclusive to India
    • not widely diffused
    • Ancient scriptures (no Authority)
    • Brahman - One God
  30. Hindu Precepts
    • Brahman (manifestations)
    • Vishnu
    • Shiva
    • Shakti
    • Reincarnation
    • Law of Karma
  31. Hindu caste
    The class or distinct hereditary order in to which a hindu is assigned according to religious law
  32. Ethnic Asian religions
    Confucianism, taoism, and shintosim
  33. Confusionism
    • moral code
    • educate, respect
    • Goodwill towards others
    • love from family members
  34. Taoism
    • "The Path"
    • philosophy of harmony and balance
    • yin Yang
  35. Shintoism
    Japanese traditional religion
  36. Buddism origin
    • Siddhartha, Quatama
    • Universalizing
  37. Buddism Branches
    Theravada, Mahayana, and Tantrayana
  38. Four Noble Truths
    • Life involves suffering
    • suffering is caused by desire (leads to reincarnation)
    • extinguish suffering
    • Nirvana reached through 8 fold path
  39. Political Geography
    location and organization of the earth's surface into a collection of political units. (Units may be international and national)
  40. State
    an organized independent political unit (synonymous with country)
  41. Nation
    a group of people with a commonality (ancestry, race, religion)
  42. Nation-State
    A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular nation90% or greater
  43. Evolution of the State
    • Ancient City-States - Mesoptamia
    • Empires -controlled vast areas through efficient networks, strong military, organized government
    • Kingdoms - king of vast estates; European countries today from this evolution
    • Colonies - extension of kingdom (missionaries, resources, indication of power)
  44. Imperialism
    absolute control of an inhabited areas for power & resources
  45. Imperialism examples
    • Spain & Portugal conquered New World
    • England (United Kingdom) - attained a colonial empire that circled the globe"empire where the sun never set"
    • France - colonized nearby lands Others - Germany, Belgium, Dutch, US
  46. Unitary
    • most of the power is in the hands of one central government
    • (France controls all subregions (regions and departements)today is decentralizing)
  47. Federal
    • a strong central government but local authority with autonomy is given to regional governments
    • United States of America
  48. Shapes of States
    • Fragmented
    • Prorupted
    • Compact
    • Elongated
    • Perforated
  49. Fragmented
    • a state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory. islands
    • more difficult to govern because of isolation
    • (empowered by water)
    • Problematic
  50. Prorupted
    • an otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension
    • access or disruption
    • can benefit if the proruption leads to a resource, access point or as buffer
  51. Compact
    • a state in which the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
    • efficient and easy to run is capital is place near center
  52. Elongated
    • a state with a long, narrow shape
    • harder to manage because of possibility of long distances from the capital; poor communication
    • potential isolation
  53. Perforated
    • a state that is completely surrounds another one
    • somewhat hard to govern because two states must be agreeable to each otherusually landlocked and dependent on outer state to support it
    • South Africa
  54. Other Boundaries
    • Landlocked States - lack access to ocean or major transportation corridors
    • Frontier - a zone of separation between two states in which neither state exercises political control; few areas left; Antarctica & Arabia
  55. Physical boundries
    • Mountains
    • deserts
    • Rivers
    • Oceans
  56. Cultural Boundries
    • Geometric Lines
    • -California (40 parallel to lake to 35th and colorado R)
    • walls and fences- east and west Berlin
    • neutral zones-north and south korea
  57. Religious Boundary
    • few exactly divided
    • Britains Splitting of India
  58. Language boundries
    Britain, france , germany
  59. World powers
    • multi polar world
    • old model-US vs USSR
    • new model- Japan China, Korea, India
  60. number of states
    • 1947-50
    • 1994-180
    • 1998-190
  61. Eritrea and Ethiopia
    • Ethiopia was given control of Eritrea after WW11
    • Banned use of flag and language
  62. Rwanda
    • Conflict over minority and majority tribes
    • (tutsi (min) and Hutus)
    • 800000 slaughtered
    • massive migration
  63. Sri Lanka
    • Opression of Tamils civil rights including citizenship
    • Tamil Hindus -north
    • Sinhalese Buddhist- south
  64. Palestinian and Isreali
    • ancestral homeland of many ethnic grouped (jews, christians, Muslims)
    • allowed little civil rights for palestinians
  65. North and South Korea
    • Ideological war between chinas communism and western capitalism
    • seperated by guarded Demilitarization Zone (DMZ)
  66. Indi and Pakastan
    • Britain divided country into 3 parts
    • race to the other side in short time
    • india, West Pakistan and East Pakistan
  67. Kurds
    • Example of ancient nation without state
    • Straddles Iran, iraq, Turkey and Syria
    • now refugees
  68. Former yugoslavia
    • Forced unity with different religous and languages after WW1
    • Ethnic cleansing( Nazi style genocide of ethnic groups)
  69. Chechnya
    • Russian conflict with ethnic muslims (imp for natural resources)
    • hardline stance to prevent other break away republic in the caucasus.
  70. Cyprus
    • Divided between turks in the north and Greeks in the south
    • Both ethnic groups have close proximity to mainland countries
    • turkish independent not rec world wide
  71. afghanistan
    • taliban- soldiers now control gov
    • Radical fundamentalist:
    • no rights for women
  72. Lebanon
    • Great ethnis/ religious diversity
    • Flood of Palestinian refugees
    • Formations of radical groups, like PLO
  73. Kosovo
    • Muslim seeking independence from serbia
    • NATOs final stand agains brutal genocide