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Name the joints of the knee.
- - Tibiofemoral joint
- - Proximal Tibiofibular joint
- - Patellofemoral joint
Describe the structure of the tibiofemoral joint.
What structures support this joint?
Is this a hinge joint?
The articulation between the femoral condyles and the tibial plateau.
The tibiofemoral joint gets support from the menisci, the cruciate ligaments, the joint capsule and collateral ligaments.
No! The motions available are: flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, and abduction/adduction
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
O: Posteromedial aspect of lateral femoral condyle
I: Just anteromedial to intercondylar eminence
A: Prevents anterior displacement of tibia on a fixed femur; prevents excessive rotation of tibia on a fixed femur; provides secondary support to varus and valgus forces
Posterior Cruciate Ligament
O: Lateral surface of medial femoral condyle
I: Posterior to the intercondylar eminence
A: Prevent posterior displacement of tibia on a fixed femur; prevents hyperextension of tibiofemoral joint; provides secondary restraint to varus and valgus forces.
*shorter, thicker, and stronger than ACL
Medial Collateral Ligament
A: Restricts valgus forces
Deep fibers attach to medial meniscus
Lateral Collateral Ligament
O: Lateral femoral condyle
I: Head of fibula
A: Protects against varus forces
Articulates on posterior aspect of patella.
Describe the Screw Home Mechanism
Terminal knee extension = terminal external rotation of the tibia
To initiate flexion, tibia must first internally rotate to "unscrew" the tibiofemoral joint via the popliteus muscle.
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