Psychology Chapter 7

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111830
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Psychology Chapter 7
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2011-10-24 17:52:29
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Memory
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  1. The inability to distinguish an actual memory of an event from information you learned about the event elsewhere.
    source misattribution
  2. Confusion of an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to you, or a belief that you remember something when it never actually happened.
    confabulation
  3. Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or of an item of information.
    explicit memory
  4. The ability to retrieve and reproduce from memory previously encountered material.
    Recall
  5. The ability to identify previously encountered material.
    Recognition
  6. Unconscious retention in memory, as evidence by the effect of a previous experience or previously encountered information on current thoughts or actions.
    implicit memory
  7. A method for measuring implicit memory in which a person reads or listens to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects performance on another type of task.
    priming
  8. A method for measuring retention that compares the time required to relearn material with the time used in the initial learning of the material.
    relearning method
  9. A model of memory in which knowledge is represented as connections amond thousands of interacting processing units, distributed in a vast network, and all operating in parallel. Also called a connectionist model.
    parallel distributed processing (PDP) model
  10. A memory system that momentarily preserves extremely accurate images of sensory information.
    sensory register
  11. In the three-box model of memory, a limited-capacity memory system involved in the retention of information for brief periods; it is also used to hold information retrieved from long-term memory for temporary use.
    short-term memory (STM)
  12. A meaningful unit of information; it may be composed of smaller units.
    chunk
  13. In many models of memory, a cognitively complex form of short-term memory that involves active mental processes that control retrieval of information from long-term memory and interpret that information appropriately for a given task.
    working memory
  14. In the three-box model of memory, the memory system involved in the long-term storage of information.
    long-term memory (LTM)
  15. Memories for the performance of actions or skills ("knowing how").
    procedural memories
  16. Memories of facts, rules, concepts, and events ("knowing that"); they include semantic and episodic memories.
    declarative memories
  17. Memories of general knowledge, including facts, rules, concepts, and propositions.
    semantic memories
  18. Memories of personally experience events and the contexts in which they occurred.
    episodic memories
  19. The tendency for recall of the first and last items on a list to surpass recall of items in the middle of the list.
    serial-position effect
  20. A long-lasting increase in the strength of synaptic responsiveness, thought to be a biological mechanism of long-term memory.
    long-term potentiation
  21. The process by which a long-term memory becomes durable and stable.
    consolidation
  22. Rote repetition of material in order to maintain its availability in memory.
    maintenance rehearsal
  23. Association of new information with already stored knowledge and analysis of the new information to make it memorable.
    elaborative rehearsal
  24. In the encoding of information, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus.
    deep processing
  25. Strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as the use of a verse or a formula.
    mnemonics
  26. The theory that information in memory eventually disappears if it is not accessed; it applies better to short-term than no long-term memory.
    decay theory
  27. Forgetting that occurs when recently learned material interferes with the ability to remember similar material stored previously.
    retroactive interference
  28. forgetting that occurs when previously stored material interferes with the ability to remember similar, more recently learned material.
    proactive interference
  29. The inability to retrieve information stored in memory because of insufficient cues for recall.
    cue-dependent forgetting
  30. The tendency to remember something when the remember something when the rememberer is in the same physical or mental state as during the original learning or experience.
    state-dependent memory
  31. The tendency to remember experiences that are consistent with one's current mood and overlook or forget experiences that are not.
    mood-congruent memory
  32. The partial or complete loss of memory for important personal information.
    amnesia
  33. In psychoanalytic theory, the selective, involuntary pushing of threatening or upsetting information into the unconscious.
    repression
  34. The inability to remember events and experiences that occurred during the first two or three years of life.
    childhood (infantile) amnesia

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