LA exam 3

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  1. Most important btw nutrition, parasites, and vacc?
    nutrition
  2. how much roughage does a horse need to eat
    • 3% of body wt
    • not as much if high quality
    • higher in Ca than P
  3. how much concentrate does a horse need to eat
    • 0.5-1% of body wt
    • cereal grains higher in P than Ca
  4. how much fat does a horse need to eat
    • 6-8%
    • energy
    • race, endurance, cutting, and reining horse need high end
  5. Ca:p in equine diet
    want Ca slightly higher than P
  6. equine stomach parasites
    • bots
    • all ages
    • seasonal
    • tx ivermectin
  7. equine SI parasites
    • ascarids
    • young
    • in stables
    • tx ivermectin
  8. equine end of SI parasites
    • tapeworm (A. perfoliata)
    • all ages
  9. equine LI parasites
    • strongyles
    • seasonal
    • tx ivermectin
  10. equine end of LI parasites
    • pinworms
    • in stables
    • tx ivermectin
  11. tx parasites in equine
    • ivermectin- bots, ascarids, strongyles, pinworms
    • moxydectin (Quest)- do not use in thin horse or minis- kills persistant strongyles
  12. anaplasma in young
    asymptomatic to mild
  13. anaplasma in adults
    • severity inc with inc in age
    • 4 stages- incubation, acute dz, convalescent stage, carrier stage
  14. stage I anaplasmosis
    • incubation
    • 21-45d
    • asymptomatic
  15. stage II anaplasmosis
    • acute dz
    • >1% RBCs affected
    • fever for a few days
    • anorexia
    • acute death
    • lethargy
    • tachycardia
    • NO HEMOGLOBINURIA bc this is an extravascular hemolytic event
  16. stage III anaplasmosis
    • convalescent stage
    • 3-4 wks
    • wt loss
    • icterus
    • ill thrift
  17. stage IV anaplasmosis
    • carrier stage
    • for life
    • asymptomatic
  18. time of year for anaplasmosis
    late summer/early fall bc flies
  19. pathology of anaplasmosis
    • dec PCV
    • see organisms on blood smear (may not see in carrier)
    • serology to detect carriers
    • hyperbilirubinemia
    • hyperbilirubinuria
    • thin blood
    • pale mm
    • splenomegaly
    • NO HEMOGLOBINURIA
  20. transmission of anaplasma
    • Dermacentor tick
    • iatragenic
    • blood feeding flies
  21. tx anaplasmosis
    tetracyclines
  22. prevention of anaplasmosis
    • chlortetracycline containing feed- this is not a tx dose, only prevents clinical signs
    • control vectors
  23. 5 forms lymphosarcoma
    • cutaneous
    • juvenile
    • thymic
    • hemal LN enlargement
    • enzootic
  24. form of lymphosarcoma associated with a virus
    only the enzootic form is associated with the bovine leukemia virus
  25. lymphosarcoma basics
    • virus infects lymphocytes
    • transmission of lymphs from one animal to another via blood, milk, and colostrum
    • 0.48 heritability
  26. significance of infection with bovine leukemia virus
    • 70% infected will not display any clinical signs
    • 25% infected will not have signs but will develop a persistent lymphocytosis
    • 5% of 25% will develop solid tumors
    • 2-5% will develop lymphosarcoma
  27. transmission of lymphosacrcoma
    • #1 tattooing, dehorning, castrating, contaminated needles
    • #2 rectal palpation
    • #3 colostrum
  28. diagnosis of BLV
    • gp-51 antigen
    • organs affected- right atrium (distended jugular vein and tachypnea), abomasum (distended abdomen and melena), LN, uterus
    • CBC norml unless lymphocytosis
  29. prevention of BLV
    • disinfect instruments
    • change needles
    • use clean rectal palpation gloves
    • separate seroneg and seropos cows
    • do not feed bulk milk and colostrum to calves
  30. control of BLV
    • test and slaughter
    • test and segregation
    • test and implementation of corrective management
  31. bovine parturient paresis
    • milk fever
    • flaccid paralysis near parturition due to hypocalcemia cause by rapid onset of lactation
  32. Ca:P
    • 50% Ca ionized
    • 1:1 or 2:1
    • grains- P
    • legumes- Ca
    • inverse relationship btw Ca and P
  33. hormaonal control of Ca
    • parathytroid hormone- low Ca leads to inc PTH
    • vit D- allows Caa to be available
    • calcitonin- high Ca inhibits PTH
    • young have more Ca and P so no milk fever in first calf heifer
  34. ddx for milk fever
    • grass tetany
    • obtorator nerve damage
    • trauma
    • lymphoma
    • low P/K
    • myopathy
  35. risk for milk fever
    • high Ca diet during dry period bc suppressed PTH
    • estrogens have antagonistic activity on PTH
  36. occurrence of milk fever
    • dairy breeds
    • hereditary
    • rare in first calf heifers
    • 90% occur within 48hrs of calving
    • high Ca diet in dry period will predispose
  37. clinical signs of milk fever
    • prodromal- restlessness
    • recumbent- head along side body, elevated HR thats hard to hear
    • comatose- lateral recumbancy
  38. pathlogy of milk fever
    no lesions
  39. tx milk fever
    • Ca borogluconate slowly
    • Ca dextrose
    • HR slows, tremors appear, sweat on muzzle, defecation, eructation, get up
  40. prevention of milk fever
    • good management during dry period
    • low Ca
    • DCAD makes diet more acidic so absorb more Ca
    • inc Ca 48 hrs before calving
    • avoid feeding poultry litter to beef cows
  41. hypomagnesemia
    • grass tetany
    • inadequate dietary Mg (usually with low Ca)
    • tonic-clonic muscle spasms
    • low Mg releases acetylcholine leading to tetany
    • high K fertilizer will dec Ca and Mg in forage
  42. occurrence of hypomagnesemia
    • lactating beef cows
    • older have higher risk
    • thin cows higher risk
  43. clinical signs of hypomagnesemia
    • sudden death
    • "pasture angels"
    • anorexia
    • muscle tremors
  44. ddx hypomagnesemia
    • milk fever (cannot tell apart until later bc flaccid)
    • rabies
  45. diagnosis of hypomagnesemia
    • clinical signs
    • dietary hx
  46. tx hypomagnesemia
    • SQ Mg sulfate
    • CMPK IV
    • oral Mg oxide
    • feed alfalfa
  47. prevention of hypomagnesemia
    daily feeding of Mg salts
  48. bovine ketosis
    • lactating dairy cow
    • inadequate carb intake
    • ketone bodies
    • due to high energy demand of early lactation
    • hypoglycemia
  49. primary vs secondary ketosis
    • 1- lack energy in diet
    • 2- anything that knocks off feed (displaced abomasum, metritis, mastitis)
  50. clinical signs of ketosis
    • loss of appetite
    • dec in milk prod
    • sweet odor of breath
    • look for underlying dz
    • wt loss
  51. pathology of ketosis
    • hypoglycemia
    • elevated blood ketones
    • ketonuria
    • ketones in milk
  52. steps of ketosis
    • dec intake
    • lack OA
    • no oxidation of ACoA
    • more ketone bodies
    • dec intake
    • cycle continues
  53. fatty acids in ketosis
    • proprionate- supports gluconeogenesis
    • acetate and butyrate- make ketone bodies
  54. necropsy findings after ketosis
    yellow, pale, friable liver with fatty changes
  55. tx ketosis
    • tx underlying dz
    • IV 50% glucose
  56. prevention of ketosis
    • BCS 3.5/5 at calving
    • lead feed dairy cows
  57. fat cow syndrome
    • dairy cattle
    • overfeeding during the dry period
    • overconditioned at calving
  58. pathogenesis of fat cow syndrome
    • liver overwhelmed by excessive NEFA's
    • stored in hepatocytes instead of released as VLDL's
    • liver unable to carry out normal metabolic fxn
    • formation of ketone badies
    • ketosis
  59. clinical signs of fat cow syndrome
    • rapid wt loss
    • BCS>4 at calving then drop to 2.5
    • depressed appetite
  60. diagnosis of fat cow syndrome
    • hx
    • clinical signs of ketosis
  61. tx fat cow syndrome
    • prognosis is poor
    • tx presenting or underlying dz
    • IV glucose (same as ketosis)
  62. prevention of fat cow syndrome
    • maitain proper BCS
    • no free choice, high energy feeds during dry period
  63. pregnancy toxemia
    • sheep and goats
    • hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia
    • inadequate energy (hay) intake during late gestation
  64. pathogenesis of preganacy toxemia
    • energy deficit due to dec nutritional plane or dec in voluntary food intake
    • fetus dec abdominal space leading to dec intake and inadequate glucose production
  65. clinical signs of pregnancy toxemia
    • ewe leaves flock
    • anorexia
    • depression
    • blindness
    • recumbency
    • tremors
  66. tx of pregnancy toxemia
    • prognosis grave if recumbent
    • decide if want ewe or lamb
    • early stage- feed grain bc high energy
    • glucose
    • induce parturition: goat-PG, sheep- Dex+PG
  67. prevention of preganacy toxemia
    • prevent ewe/doe from becoming too fat
    • inc plane of nutrition during last 1/3 of gestation
  68. protein-energy malnutrition
    • occurs in pregnant cows on a marginal diet
    • winter
    • wt loss, weakness, inability to rise
    • diet low in quality and quantity
  69. diagnosis of protein-energy malnutrition
    • not ketotic
    • demonstrating dec caloric intake
  70. tx protein-energy malnutrition
    often unsuccessful
  71. vitamin E/selenium deficiency
    • Se- glutathione peroxidase- antioxidant- without then hydrogen peroxide accumulates- counteracts toxicity of metals
    • vit E- antioxidant- prevents formation of hydrogen peroxide
  72. syndromes created by vit E/Se deficiency
    • white muscle dz- death 2d after birth, pale streaks in muscle
    • retained placenta
    • ill thrift
    • immune system deficits
    • infertility
    • abortions
    • mulberry heart dz in pigs
    • stiff lamb dz
  73. diagnosis of vit E/Se deficiency
    • whole blood- Se
    • plasma- vit E
  74. tx vit E/Se deficiency
    • inj Se
    • salt mix
    • Se supplement to total ration
  75. copper deficiency
    • young
    • unthriftiness
    • changes in hair color
    • diarrhea
    • lameness
  76. Cu distribution and absorption
    • liver (most), brain, heart, kidney
    • absorbed in SI
    • as Mo goes up, Cu absorption goes down
    • as sulfur goes up, Cu goes down
  77. transport and excretion of Cu
    • transport via albumin to liver
    • excreted in bile
  78. functions of Cu
    • hematopoiesis
    • hair pigmentation
    • bone formation
    • nervous tissue
    • keratinization
  79. syndromes related to cu deficiency
    • neonatal ataxia- swayback, lambs mostly
    • anemia- nonreg
    • achromotrichia- loss of black pigment
    • impaired keratinization of wool and hooves
    • painful jts
    • diarrhea- adults
  80. diagnosis of Cu deficiency
    liver Cu concentrations
  81. tx Cu deficiency
    • Cu glycinate
    • Sheep susceptible to Cu toxicity so be careful
    • Cu sulfate in ffed- may be toxic in sheep
  82. prevention of Cu deficiency
    • salt trace mineral supplement
    • Cu oxide needle bolus
    • this is for cattle- be careful with sheep
  83. copper toxicosis
    • sheep most susceptible
    • accidental feeding of Cu in horse or pig feed
    • hemolytic crisis
    • >10ppm Cu n diet
    • low Mo, S, Zn
  84. pathogenesis of copper toxicosis
    • Cu accumulates in liver
    • when animal stressed Cu is mobilized
    • hemolytic crisis
  85. clinical signs of Cu toxicosis
    • hemoglobinuria
    • anemia
    • icterus
  86. tx Cu toxicosis
    • penicillamine
    • ammonium molybdate
  87. failure of passive transfer
    • insufficienct quantity or quality of colostrum produced or consumed
    • failure to absorb colostrum
  88. colostrum contents
    • hormonal (IgG) and cellular (lymphs)
    • graetest IgG at parturition
    • loses quality even if not milked out
  89. factors that dec colostrum quantity
    • parity- heifers have less
    • breed- dairy has more but poorer quality
    • poor nutrition
  90. factors that dec colostrum quality
    • breed- dairy has more but pooer quantity
    • leakage or preparturient milking
  91. factors that dec colostrum intake
    • poor calf vigor
    • poor udder confirmation
    • poor footing
  92. factors that dec colostrum absorption
    • corticosteroids
    • stress- dystocia
    • resp acidosis
  93. diagnosis of FPT
    • performed on serum in first 48 hrs of life
    • refractometry (best)- measure TP- <5g/dl is FPT
    • single radial immunodiffusion (SRID)- gold standard- expensive and slow
    • sodium sulfite precipitation test- serum mix with sodium sulfite and pos test is lack of turbidity
    • serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)- inc following colostrum absorption
  94. tx FPT
    • less than 24hr- colostrum
    • otherwise- serum transfusion
    • may not need anything
  95. rules of thumb for colostrum management
    • dairy calves get 3-4 L colostrum ASAP
    • do no t pool colostrum
    • use first milking colostrum only
    • beef calves should nurse within 2hrs
    • give 1-2L beef colostrum or 1 gallon dairy colostrum if delivered by fetal extraction or c-section (don't wait to see if will suck)
  96. neonatal septicemia
    life threathening and often fatal systemic dz caused by presence of bacteria/toxins in bloodstream of calves
  97. predisposing factor to neonatal septicemia
    • FPT
    • exposure to e. coli, a. pyogens, salmonella
  98. clinical signs of neonatal septicemia
    • fever
    • depression
    • anorexia
    • hypopyon
    • seizures
    • may have diarrhea in dairy calves
  99. tx neonatal septicemia
    • Ab- ceftiofur
    • NSAIDs
    • glucose
  100. actinomycosis
    • lumpy jaw
    • A. bovis
    • gram + anaerobe
    • normal flora of upper resp tract
    • infection secondary to mucosal wound
    • painless osteomyelitis of mandible or maxilla
  101. clinical signs and dx of actinomycosis
    • hard non-movable swelling on mandible or maxilla
    • dx based on hx of slow growing mass
    • rads
    • biopsy
  102. tx actinomycosis
    • salvage
    • NaI 3x 7-10 days apart
    • long acting oxytetracycline
    • ddx- tooth abscess, healing fx, soft tissue abscess, neoplasia
  103. actinobacillosis
    • wooden tongue
    • A. lignieresii
    • gram - aerobic
    • normal flora of upper resp tract
    • mucosa penetrated for infection
    • granulomatous
  104. clinical signs of actinobacillosis
    • swelling of tongue- hard and painful
    • masses in buccal or cervical area
  105. dx of actinobacillosis
    • palpation of base of tongue
    • culture of lesion or exudate
  106. tx actinobacillosis
    • NaI at 3x 7-20 days apart
    • long acting oxytetracycline
    • tx works better than actinomycosis
    • ddx- actinomycosis, abscess, oral FB, impacted cud
  107. caseous lymphadenitis
    • Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
    • survive in soil
    • transmit via break in skin
    • moves thru LNs
    • intracellular
    • abscess
    • life long infection in small rum
  108. clincial signs and dx of CL
    • enlarged LNs with pus
    • resp signs if internal LNs
    • culture of organism
  109. tx of CL
    • decide on strategy for herd
    • lance and live with it- will return
    • minimize spread- sx removal, tulathromycin
    • eradication- cull
  110. bovine virus diarrhea
    • 70-90% seropos
    • transmit via contact or aerosol
    • can become PI
    • cytopathic vs non-cytopathic
    • most infections are subclinical
  111. acute BVD
    • NCP
    • immunocompetent cattle that are naive
    • clinically inapparent to rapidly fatal
    • mortality high
  112. in utero infection of BVD
    • NCP
    • early- abortion
    • <125d- PI
  113. PI cattle with BVD- mucosal dz
    • NCP+CP
    • blunt buccal papillae
    • interdigital lesions
    • linear striations in esophagous
    • BVD recognized as self since inf in utero
    • weak calf born- seroneg
    • NCP converts to CP
  114. dx of BVD
    • PCR
    • ELISA
    • ICH
    • virus isolation
    • PI demonstrated by 2 pos tests 3-4wks apart
  115. vacc for BVD
    • killed- requires 2 primary inj, short lived immunity
    • modified live- longer lasting, can cause clinical dz
  116. mesquite bean toxicity (prosopis)
    • beans abundant and other feedstuff in short supply
    • clinical signs months after ingestion
  117. clincial signs of mesquite bean toxicity
    • profuse salivation, chewing, regurge'tongue protrusion bc loss of jaw muscle tone (CN V)
    • wt loss
  118. tx mosquite bean toxicity
    • slow recovery
    • often unsuccessful
    • prognosis better in goats
  119. 5 F's of abdominal distension
    • fluid
    • feces
    • flatus
    • fetus
    • fat
  120. carbohydrate engorgement
    • grain overload
    • acute acidosis
    • highly fermentable feedstuffs- corn, milo, apples, honey
    • when unaccustomed to high carb diet
    • dairy have become accustomed
  121. pathophysiology of carb engorgement
    • strep bovis inc and produce lactic acid
    • pH falls- gram neg and protozoa die
    • S. bovis inhibited and lactobacilli proliferate
    • rumen motility dec
  122. clinical signs of carb engorgement
    • anorexia
    • depression
    • ab distension- bloat, splashy rumen
    • dehydration
    • rumen atony
  123. lab findings of carb engorgement
    • rumen pH <5.5
    • rumen fluid smells sour
    • gram stain reveals gram + rods
  124. tx carb engorgement
    • Mild acidosis:
    • oral antacids- Mg hydroxide (alkalinize)
    • remove grain, feed hay
    • Mod acidosis:
    • rumen lavage via stomach tube
    • plus above tx
    • Severe acidosis:
    • rumenotomy
    • IV fluids- not lactated
    • Penicillin
    • transfaunation- rumen contents from one to another
  125. chronic acidosis
    • feedlot cattle
    • anorexia
    • bloat
    • low milk fat test in dairy
    • ration analysis
    • tx- buffers- NaHCO3
  126. frothy bloat
    • legumes- alfalfa
    • cannot eructate bc of foam
    • not a problem of too much gas or rumen motility
    • ab distension in left paralumbar fossa
    • resp distress
    • tx- poloxalene- antisurfactant
  127. free gas bloat
    • motility disorder
    • show/feedlot cattle
    • following pneumonia- young
    • ruminitis- older
    • ab distension in left parlumbar fossa
    • relieved when stomach tube passed
    • tx- reduce grain, add NaHCO3, transfaunation
  128. abomasal ulcers
    • stress induced + high grain
    • can be caused by lymphosarcoma
    • 4 types
  129. type 1 abomasal ulcer
    • non-perforating
    • few clincial signs
  130. type II abomasal ulcer
    • bleeding ulcer
    • anemai
    • weakness
    • pale mucous membranes
    • melena
    • rarely perforate
  131. type III abomasal ulcer
    • perforating ulcer
    • localized peritonitis
    • rarely bleed
    • adhesions
    • fever
  132. type IV abomasal ulcer
    • perforating ulcer
    • diffuse peritonitis
    • abdominal ccontamination
    • spetic shock in 24hrs
  133. abomasal lymphosarcoma
    bleeding ulcer (type II) in older cattle
  134. dx of abomasal ulcer
    • fecal occult blood
    • clinical signs and hx
    • abdominocentesis
    • serology to rule out BLV
    • necropsy
  135. tx abomasal ulcer
    • salvage
    • high roughage
    • remove stress
    • tx concurrent dz
    • transfusion
    • fluids
  136. abomasal ulcer/tympany syndrome in calves
    • 1-2mth old calves on heavier milking cows
    • perforating with peritonitis
    • Clostridium perferingens A&E
    • Canadian theory- undifferentiated abomasal upset
    • Cu deficiency
    • BVDV
    • Sarcina
    • sudden death
  137. traumatic reticuloperitonitis
    • hardware dz
    • foreign object swallowed and penetrates reticulum
    • local peritonitis usually
    • penetrate diaphragm, pericardium, liver, spleen
    • abscesses and adhesions
  138. clinical signs of hardware dz
    • acute drop in milk prod and feed intake
    • rumen stasis
    • abdominal pain
    • arched back
    • elbows out, reluctant to move
  139. lab findings in hardware dz
    • hyperfibrinogenemia
    • hyperglobulinemia if chronic
  140. dx hardware dz
    • hx
    • signs
    • ultrasound
    • abdomenocentesis
    • rads
  141. tx hardware dz
    • rumen magnet
    • Ab- penicillin, oxytet, ceftiofur
    • rumenotomy
    • rib resection and pericardiectomy
  142. left sided pings
    LDA
  143. right sided pings
    • spiral colon
    • rectum
    • RDA
    • AV
    • small intestine
  144. displaced abomasum
    • dairy cows
    • within one mth parturition
    • dec milk prod
    • high conc diet
  145. LDA
    • not emergency
    • looks like RDA
    • ping from 8-9th rib to PLF
  146. RDA
    • emergency bc can become abomasal volvulus
    • looks like LDA
    • ping from 8-9th rib to PLF
  147. lab findings in displaced abomasum
    • hypokalemia
    • hypochloridemia
    • alkalosis
    • ketonuria
    • ketonemia
  148. non-sx tx LDA
    rolling
  149. bar suture to tx displaced abomasum
    • only LDA
    • dorsal recumbency
    • trochar inserted and then toggle pins
    • for mariginal cows
  150. right paramedian abomasopexy
    • LDA or RDA
    • dorsal recumbency
    • abomasum sutured in place as incision closed
  151. right paralumbar omentopexy
    • LDA or RDA
    • standing procedure
    • omentum near pylorus is sutured into incision
  152. left paralumbar abomasopexy
    • LDA only
    • standing
    • long tailed sutures placed in abomasum and then through the body wall and tied
  153. abomasal volvulus
    • drop in appetite and milk prod
    • dairy cows
    • depression
    • dehydration
    • palpable per rectum
    • ping in right side
    • hypochloridemia
    • alkalosis
    • hypokalemia
    • emergency slaughter
    • paramedian abomasopexy
    • right paralumbar abomasopexy
    • omentopexy
    • fluid therapy
  154. neonatal calf diarrhea
    • rotavirus
    • coronavirus
    • ETEC- <2wk
    • Crypto- zoonotic, >2wk
    • Salmonella- typhimurium and dublin
  155. ETEC
    • cause neonatal diarrhea <2wks
    • heat stable enterotoxin- ST
    • attach to pilus- K99
    • secretory diarrhea- no morphologic damage
  156. rotavirus and coronavirus
    • causes neonatal diarrhea
    • R- proximal SI
    • C- distal SI
    • destroy villus tips and sides
    • malabsorption
  157. cryptosporidium
    • causes neonatal diarrhea
    • malabsorption and secretory
    • villus blunting
    • 10d-3wks
    • hypoglycemia
  158. salmonella
    • cause neonatal diarrhea
    • >2wk
    • malabsorption and secretory
  159. clincial signs of neonatal diarrhea
    • profuse watery yellow to whitish diarrhea with no blood or mucus
    • except salmonella- bloody foul smelling diarrhea with mucus strands
  160. lab findings for neonatal calf diarrhea
    • dehydration
    • acidosis- lactic acid build up, dec acid excretion, production of VFAs
    • hyperkalemia- plasma K rises bc total body K dec due to loss in stool and urine
    • hypoglycemia
  161. tx neonatal calf diarrhea
    • fluids
    • Ab if concurrent septicemia/other dz
    • neomycin, tetracyclin, ampicillin cause more malabsorption
    • ceftiofur (gram neg)
    • anticholinergics CI
    • keep calves on milk
    • do not mix electrolytes and milk
    • do no mix milk and biocarbonate
  162. Johne's dz
    • paratuberculosis
    • acid fast rod
    • dairy cows
    • fecal-oral, colostrum, in utero
    • infected early in life but no signs until 2-5yrs
    • older cattle need a bigger dose
  163. pathogenesis of Johne's dz
    • ingestion
    • organisms in M cells of gut
    • granulomatous enteritis of the ileum
    • thickened intestines
    • malabsorption, maldigestion, protein losing enteropathy
  164. clinical signs of Johne's dz
    • chronic diarrhea
    • wt loss
    • good appetite
  165. dx Johne's dz
    • ELISA- 99% specific
    • culture feces- definitive dx
    • PCR- quick
    • necropsy
    • there is no sure way to prove that a living cow is free of infection
  166. tx Johne's dz
    • no cure
    • feeding monensin is extra label use- still shed organisms
  167. prevention of Johne's dz
    • prevent contact of susceptible young calves with infected feces
    • vacc not legal in Texas bc cross rxn with TB

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mayabug
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111842
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LA exam 3
Updated:
2011-10-26 04:54:11
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LA exam 3
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