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What does the Respiratory system do?
Supplies O2 to the blood and gets rid of CO2 from blood
What does the respiratory system consist of?
- Nose and Nasal Cavity
- Throat (pharynx)
- Voice Box (larynx)
- Windpipe (trachea)
- Bronchial tubes or tree
What are the Respiratory System functions?
- Cleaning and filtering air
- Gas exchange
- Gas transport
What do Olfactory Epithelium do?
Detection of smell
What two cells line the nasal cavity?
- Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
- Goblet cells
What do the Pseudostratified Ciliated columnar epithelium and Goblet cells do?
- Large blood supply warms air
- Mucous (goblet cells) moistens air and traps dust
- Cilia move mucous towards pharynx
What is the function of the Paranasal sinus?
Lightens skull and resonate voice
What is the Pharynx and where does it extend to and from?
- The pharynx is a five inch ling muscular tube
- It extends from internal nares to the larynx
What are the functions of the Pharynx?
- Passageway for food and air
- Resonating chamber for speech production
- Tonsils protect from infections
What are the three distinct regions of the Pharynx?
Where does the Nasopharynx extend to and from?
Extends from internal nares to soft plate
What connects the middle ear to the Nasopharynx?
auditory (Eustachian) tubes
Which tonsils are in the roof of the Nasopharynx?
Adenoid or pharyngeal tonsils
The Nasopharynx is the passageway for what?
Passageway for AIR ONLY
What is the Nasopharynx lined with?
Lined with Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with golbet cells
Where does the Oropharynx entend from and to?
Extends from soft palate to the epiglottis
Which tonsils are found in the Oropharynx?
- Palatine tonsils found on side walls
- Lingual tonsils under the base of the tongue
What is the Oropharynx a passage way for?
Food and air
What cells line the Oropharynx?
Lined with Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Where does the Laryngopharynx extend from and to?
- Extends from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage
- Ends at the esophagus inferiorly
What is the Laryngopharynx a common passageway for?
Food and air
What cells like the Laryngopharynx?
Lined with Stratified Squamous Epithelium
How many cartliages make up the larynx?
- 9 cartilages
- singles (thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis)
- paired (arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform)
What are the three single cartilages of the Larynx?
Thyroid, Cricoid, Epiglottis
What are the three paired cartilages of the Larynx?
Arytenoid, Corniculate, Cuneiform
What contains the vocal cords or vocal folds?
Where does the trachea extend from and to?
Extends from larynx into chest where it divides to form two bronchi
What does the trachea has 16-20 of?
Incomplete C-shaped cartilage rings
What cells line the trachea?
- Lined inside with Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium and Goblet Cells
- (Same as the nasal cavity)
Which lung had the cardiac notch?
What are the names of the fissures in the right lung and how many lobes does the right lung have?
- Oblique fissure and Horizontal fissure
- resulting in 3 lobes of the right lung
- Inferior lobe, Superior lobe, middle lobe
Name the fissures in the left lung and how many lobes does the left lung have?
- Oblique fissure
- resulting in 2 lobes of the left lung
- Superior lobe, inferior lobe
Where do blood vessels and airways enter the lungs?
At the Hilum or Hilus
What does the Hilum of the lungs form?
The roots of the lungs
What are the lungs covered with?
Covered with the visceral pleura membrane
Lung lobules are smaller compartments within lobes consisting of what?
- Terminal bronchioles (supply air to lobules)
- Aveolar ducts
- Aveloar sacs
- Extensive blood supply via capillary net
What are the three types of Pneumocytes?
- Type I : Make the alveolar epithelium wall
- Type II : (Septal) Secrete Surfactant (chemical)
- Type III : Alveolar macrophage cells (cell eaters)
How many layers are there in the respiratory membrane?
Six layers: Four tissue layers and two fluid layers
What are the three functions of the respiratory membrane?
- Seperate the capillary blood from the alveolar air
- Allow O2 diffusion from alveolar air into capillary blood
- Allow CO2 diffusion from capillary blood into alveolar air
What is ventilation called?
Negative draft ventilation
What are the two terms for breathing in?
Inspiration or inhalation
What are the two terms for breathing out?
Expiration or exhalation
What is the pressure within the lungs called?
What is the pressure within the pleural cavities called?
- Intrapleural pressure
- Always less than atmospheric pressure
What is the function of the intrapleural pressure?
To keep the lungs attached to the chest wall and inflated
What is Boyle's Law?
- As the size of a closed container decreases, pressure inside increases. (volume decrease, pressure increase)
- As the size of the closed container increases, pressure inside decreases (volume increases, pressure decreases)
What is quiet resting ventilation called?
During pulmonary ventilation when does air move into the lungs?
When pressure inside the lungs is less than atmospheric pressure
During Pulmonary Ventilation what happens to muscles and lungs when air moves into the lungs?
- Diaphragm and external intercostals enlarge the chest and reduce alveolar pressure to less than atmospheric pressure.
- Air drafts into lungs - negative draft
- Resting Inspiration or Inhalation
During Pulmonary Ventilation when does the air move out of the lungs?
When atmospheric pressure is less than pressure inside the lungs
During pulmonary ventilation what happens to the muscles and lungs when air is moved out of the lungs?
- Diaphragm and external intercostals muscles relax
- Chest gets smaller
- Elastic recoil of alveoli creates Alveolar pressure greater than atmospheric pressure
- Air is pushed or squeezed out of lungs
- Resting Expiration or Exhalation
What happens in forced inspiration during forced ventilation?
- Diaphragm and external intercostal muslces contract more forcefully making the chest wider
- Results in deeper breaths
- Other back muscles become involved
- Require larger decreases in alveolar pressure
What happens in forced expiration during forced ventilation?
- Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax
- Internal intercostal muslces contract compressing rib cage and making the chest narrower
- Abdominal muslces contract compressing abdomen and forcing the diaphragm to move up further
- Require larger increases in alveolar pressures
- Air is forced out
What is lung volume?
Volume is one measurement of a quantity of air
What is lung capacity?
Capacity is the sum of two or more volumes
What is the device that measures lung volumes and capacities?
What does the Spirometer record onto?
What is Tidal Volume (VT)?
(VT) is the amount of dead air in one breath at rest
When the Tidal Volume (VT) is 500 mL, how much of the 500 mL of air reaches the alveoli?
- 350mL reaches the alveoli and participates in gas exchange. The other 150mL remains in the conduction airways and is called Anatomic Dead Air.
- Anatomic Dead Air does not participate in gas exchange
What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)?
- Volume of air inspired in addition to Tidal Volume (VT)
- AKA yawning volume
What is Expired Reserve Volume (ERV)?
- Volume of air expired in addition to Tidal Volume (VT)
- AKA sneeze or cough volume
What is Residual Volume (RV)?
Volume of air that cannot be expired even with maximum forced expiration
What is the lung capacity: Inspiratory Capacity (IC)?
- Inspiratory Capacity = Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reverve Volume (yawning volume)
What is the lung capacity: Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)?
- Functional Residual Capacity = Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume
What is the lung capacity: Vital Capacity (VC)?
- Vital Capacity = Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume
What is the lung capacity: Total Lung Capacity (TLC)?
- Total Lung Capacity = Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume
What is FEV1?
- Forced Expiratory Volume in ONE second
- Represents the % of vital capacity that is forcedly expired in ONE second
- Should be 75% or higher in healthy adults
- Lower than 75% indicates airway obstruction, lung disease or weakness in respiratory muscles
Gas exchange is done by way of what?
What is the gas exchange in the lungs during external respiration?
- Diffusion of O2 from alveolar air into blood
- Diffusion of CO2 from the blood into alveolar air
What is the gas exchange in the lungs during internal respiration?
- Diffusion of O2 from the blood into tissues
- Diffusion of CO2 from tissues into blood
Describe the action of Diffusion?
Diffusion across the extremely thin respiratory membrane from higher concentration to lower concentration of gasses
What is Dalton's Lae of partial pressure?
- In a mixture of gasses, the total pressure is equal to the sum of the pressures contributed by each individual gas
- These individual pressures are partial pressures
- Symbols for partial pressure of a gas in Pg where g stands for the specific gas
What gasses are in our atmosphere?
Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2) and Water (H2O)
What is the total pressure of out atmosphere?
- PN2+PO2+PCO2+PH2O=760 mmHg
- We are only concerned about
- PO2+PCO2=760 mmHg
What are the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in oxygenated arterial blood?
- PaO2 is the symbol for partial pressure of Oxygen in oxygenated (arterial) blood and is about 95 mmHg.
- PaCO2 is the symbol for partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in oxygenated (arterial) blood and is about 40 mmHg
What are the partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in deoxygenated venous blood?
- PvO2 is the symbol for partial pressure of Oxygen in deoxygenated (venous) blood and is about 40 mmHg
- PvCO2 is the symbol for partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in deoxygenated (venous) blood and is about 45 mmHg
More oxygen in the air results in what?
More oxygen in the blood
What is Henry's Law?
- The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to:
- 1. Partial Pressure of the Gas (% in air)
- 2. Solubility of the gas in the liquid (can not change)
- 3. Temperature of the liquid (temp of the blood)
What carries 98.5% of O2 in the body?
- 98.5% of O2 is carried by the iron in hemoglobin (bound to iron)
- Hemoglobin (Hb) picks-up O2 in the lungs (loading) and delivers it to tissues (unloading)
- Loading - becomes oxyhemoglobin (Hb-O2) when it picks-up O2
- Unloads - becomes doexyhemoglobin (Hb-H) when O2 is delivered
What carries 1.5% of O2 in the body?
Only 1.5% is dissolved in the plasma (mostly water)
What does Iron have a affinity for?
- This affinity is greater in the lungs than in tissues
- When each Hb binds with 4 O2, Hb saturation with O2 is %100
What are the PO2 main factors for loading and unloading?
- Lower PO2 in tissues favors unloading
- In the tissues PO2 is low and Hb-O2 releases O2
- In resting person, nearly 25% of O2 is unloaded
- Higher PO2 in the lungs favors loading
- In lungs alveoli PO2 is high and O2 binds to Hb
What are the 5 main factors for loading and unloading of O2?
- BPG (2,3 bisphisphoglycerate)
What are the main factors for pH loading and unloading?
- Lower pH in the tissues favors unloading
- Hb has less affinity for O2 at lower pH
- -Bohr Effect
- Higher pH of lungs alveoli favors loading
- Hb has higher affinity for O2 higher pH
What are the main factors for PCO2 loading and unloading?
- Higher PCO2 in the tissues favors unloading
- Related to pH as follows : always in water
- CO2 + H2O = carbonic acid
- CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 = H+ + HCO3-
- Weak grip / unloading Hb picks up more O2 in lungs.
What are the main factors for Temperature loading and unloading?
- Higher temperature in tissues favors unloading
- Lower temperatures in lungs favors loading
What are the main factors for BPG loading and unloading?
- BPG is produced by BRC's metabolism
- When BPG binds to Hb in tissues capillaries, Hb loosens its grip on O2 (unloading)
- Higher BPG favors O2 unloading into tissues
- Higher Metabolic rate, higher altitude and certain hormones increase BPG formation
How does fetal Hb differ from adult Hb?
- Differs from adult Hb in structure and its higher affinity for binding O2
- Maternal blood in placenta has less O2 than normal oxygenated blood
- When PO2 is low, fetal Hb can still bind enough O2 due to the higher affinity
How does CO2 bind and to what does it bind to?
- CO2 comes from car exhaust, tobacco smoke and fumes
- Binds to iron on the heme group to form carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) instead of oxyhemoglobin.
- Binds 210 times more strong then O2
- 0.1% CO binds to 50% of total Hb molecules
- 0.2% CO binds to 100% of total Hb molecules and is lethal carbon monoxide poisoning.
- Treated by pure O2
In CO2 transportation in what % and how is the CO2 transportated?
- 7% dissolved in the plasma
- 23% becomes Hb-CO2 (carbaminohemoglibin)
- 70% converted to H2CO3 by carbonic anhydrase enzyme
- H2CO3 dissociates into bicarbonate (HCO3-) (hooks to sodium), H+
- Bicarbonate transportated in plasma as sodium bicarbonate
What does the Medullary Center control?
- Dorsal Respiratory Group - regulates both quiet and forced respiration (normal)
- Ventral Respiratory Group - Functions only during forced respiration (exercise)
What does the Pons Centers control?
- Apneustic Center - produce prolonged inhalations (starts yawning)
- Pneumotaxic Center - protects against lungs over-inflation by inhibiting prolonges inhalation (ends yawning)
What are the 5 factors affecting breathing?
- Inflation (hering-Breuer) Reflex
- Conscious Control
How does increased CO2 affect breathing?
Hypercapnia (increased CO2) excites chemoreceptors in carotid arteries, aorta, and medulla oblongata and increases breathing rate (breathing faster)
How does decreased O2 affect breathing?
Hypoxia (decreased O2) such as at high altitudes excited chempreceptors and increases breating rate (breathing faster)
How do proprioceptors affect breathing?
- Muscle contractions and joint movement increase during exercise
- Increased stimulation of proprioceptors quickly increases breathing rate
- Happens as soon as an exercise starts
How does the Inflation (Hering-Breuer) Reflex affect breathing?
- Lungs over-inflation activates stretch receptors
- Increase in nerve inpulses to Pons and Medulla inhibits apneustic and dorsal respiratory group
- Inhalation stops before lungs can be damages
How does conscious control affect breathing?
Intentional breathing like when you hold your breath in a stinky bathroom or inhale to smell a perfume or aroma
What is apnea?
What is dyspnea?
What is orthopnea?
- Labored breathing when lying down flat and is relieved by sitting up
What is Hyperventilation?
rapid breathing over 20 RPM
What is hypoventilation?
slow breathing under 10 RPM
What are the 4 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD's)
- Chronic bronchitis - Inflammation of the bronchi
- Tuberculosis - Bacterial infection in the lungs
- Pneumonia - Fluid in the lung alveoli
- Emphysema - Destruction of lung alveoli
What is Chronic Bronchitis?
- Inflammation of the bronchi
What is Tuberculosis?
- Bacterial infection in lungs
What is Pneumonia?
- Fluid in the lungs alveoli
What is Emphysema?
- Destruction of lung alveoli
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