Card Set Information
P2 Respiratory Lecture
Resp system lecture
What does the Respiratory system do?
to the blood and gets rid of CO
What does the respiratory system consist of?
Nose and Nasal Cavity
Voice Box (larynx)
Bronchial tubes or tree
What are the Respiratory System functions?
Cleaning and filtering air
What do Olfactory Epithelium do?
Detection of smell
What two cells line the nasal cavity?
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
What do the Pseudostratified Ciliated columnar epithelium and Goblet cells do?
Large blood supply warms air
Mucous (goblet cells) moistens air and traps dust
Cilia move mucous towards pharynx
What is the function of the Paranasal sinus?
Lightens skull and resonate voice
What is the Pharynx and where does it extend to and from?
The pharynx is a five inch ling muscular tube
It extends from internal nares to the larynx
What are the functions of the Pharynx?
Passageway for food and air
Resonating chamber for speech production
Tonsils protect from infections
What are the three distinct regions of the Pharynx?
Where does the Nasopharynx extend to and from?
Extends from internal nares to soft plate
What connects the middle ear to the Nasopharynx?
auditory (Eustachian) tubes
Which tonsils are in the roof of the Nasopharynx?
Adenoid or pharyngeal tonsils
The Nasopharynx is the passageway for what?
Passageway for AIR ONLY
What is the Nasopharynx lined with?
Lined with Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with golbet cells
Where does the Oropharynx entend from and to?
Extends from soft palate to the epiglottis
Which tonsils are found in the Oropharynx?
Palatine tonsils found on side walls
Lingual tonsils under the base of the tongue
What is the Oropharynx a passage way for?
Food and air
What cells line the Oropharynx?
Lined with Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Where does the Laryngopharynx extend from and to?
Extends from epiglottis to cricoid cartilage
Ends at the esophagus inferiorly
What is the Laryngopharynx a common passageway for?
Food and air
What cells like the Laryngopharynx?
Lined with Stratified Squamous Epithelium
How many cartliages make up the larynx?
singles (thyroid, cricoid, epiglottis)
paired (arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform)
What are the three single cartilages of the Larynx?
Thyroid, Cricoid, Epiglottis
What are the three paired cartilages of the Larynx?
Arytenoid, Corniculate, Cuneiform
What contains the vocal cords or vocal folds?
Where does the trachea extend from and to?
Extends from larynx into chest where it divides to form two bronchi
What does the trachea has 16-20 of?
Incomplete C-shaped cartilage rings
What cells line the trachea?
Lined inside with Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium and Goblet Cells
(Same as the nasal cavity)
Which lung had the cardiac notch?
What are the names of the fissures in the right lung and how many lobes does the right lung have?
Oblique fissure and Horizontal fissure
resulting in 3 lobes of the right lung
Inferior lobe, Superior lobe, middle lobe
Name the fissures in the left lung and how many lobes does the left lung have?
resulting in 2 lobes of the left lung
Superior lobe, inferior lobe
Where do blood vessels and airways enter the lungs?
At the Hilum or Hilus
What does the Hilum of the lungs form?
The roots of the lungs
What are the lungs covered with?
Covered with the visceral pleura membrane
Lung lobules are smaller compartments within lobes consisting of what?
Terminal bronchioles (supply air to lobules)
Extensive blood supply via capillary net
What are the three types of Pneumocytes?
: Make the alveolar epithelium wall
: (Septal) Secrete Surfactant (chemical)
: Alveolar macrophage cells (cell eaters)
How many layers are there in the respiratory membrane?
Six layers: Four tissue layers and two fluid layers
What are the three functions of the respiratory membrane?
Seperate the capillary blood from the alveolar air
diffusion from alveolar air into capillary blood
diffusion from capillary blood into alveolar air
What is ventilation called?
Negative draft ventilation
What are the two terms for breathing in?
Inspiration or inhalation
What are the two terms for breathing out?
Expiration or exhalation
What is the pressure within the lungs called?
What is the pressure within the pleural cavities called?
Always less than atmospheric pressure
What is the function of the intrapleural pressure?
To keep the lungs attached to the chest wall and inflated
What is Boyle's Law?
As the size of a closed container decreases, pressure inside increases. (volume decrease, pressure increase)
As the size of the closed container increases, pressure inside decreases (volume increases, pressure decreases)
What is quiet resting ventilation called?
During pulmonary ventilation when does air move into the lungs?
When pressure inside the lungs is less than atmospheric pressure
During Pulmonary Ventilation what happens to muscles and lungs when air moves into the lungs?
Diaphragm and external intercostals enlarge the chest and reduce alveolar pressure to less than atmospheric pressure.
Air drafts into lungs - negative draft
Resting Inspiration or Inhalation
During Pulmonary Ventilation when does the air move out of the lungs?
When atmospheric pressure is less than pressure inside the lungs
During pulmonary ventilation what happens to the muscles and lungs when air is moved out of the lungs?
Diaphragm and external intercostals muscles relax
Chest gets smaller
Elastic recoil of alveoli creates Alveolar pressure greater than atmospheric pressure
Air is pushed or squeezed out of lungs
Resting Expiration or Exhalation
What happens in forced inspiration during forced ventilation?
Diaphragm and external intercostal muslces contract more forcefully making the chest wider
Results in deeper breaths
Other back muscles become involved
Require larger decreases in alveolar pressure
What happens in forced expiration during forced ventilation?
Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles relax
Internal intercostal muslces contract compressing rib cage and making the chest narrower
Abdominal muslces contract compressing abdomen and forcing the diaphragm to move up further
Require larger increases in alveolar pressures
Air is forced out
What is lung volume?
Volume is one measurement of a quantity of air
What is lung capacity?
Capacity is the sum of two or more volumes
What is the device that measures lung volumes and capacities?
What does the Spirometer record onto?
What is Tidal Volume (V
) is the amount of dead air in one breath at rest
When the Tidal Volume (V
) is 500 mL, how much of the 500 mL of air reaches the alveoli?
350mL reaches the alveoli and participates in gas exchange. The other 150mL remains in the conduction airways and is called Anatomic Dead Air.
Anatomic Dead Air does not participate in gas exchange
What is Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)?
Volume of air inspired in addition to Tidal Volume (V
AKA yawning volume
What is Expired Reserve Volume (ERV)?
Volume of air expired in addition to Tidal Volume (V
AKA sneeze or cough volume
What is Residual Volume (RV)?
Volume of air that cannot be expired even with maximum forced expiration
What is the lung capacity: Inspiratory Capacity (IC)?
Inspiratory Capacity = Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reverve Volume (yawning volume)
What is the lung capacity: Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)?
Functional Residual Capacity = Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume
What is the lung capacity: Vital Capacity (VC)?
Vital Capacity = Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume
What is the lung capacity: Total Lung Capacity (TLC)?
Total Lung Capacity = Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume
What is FEV
Forced Expiratory Volume in ONE second
Represents the % of vital capacity that is forcedly expired in ONE second
Should be 75% or higher in healthy adults
Lower than 75% indicates airway obstruction, lung disease or weakness in respiratory muscles
Gas exchange is done by way of what?
What is the gas exchange in the lungs during external respiration?
Diffusion of O
from alveolar air into blood
Diffusion of CO
from the blood into alveolar air
What is the gas exchange in the lungs during internal respiration?
Diffusion of O
from the blood into tissues
Diffusion of CO
from tissues into blood
Describe the action of Diffusion?
Diffusion across the extremely thin respiratory membrane from higher concentration to lower concentration of gasses
What is Dalton's Lae of partial pressure?
In a mixture of gasses, the total pressure is equal to the sum of the pressures contributed by each individual gas
These individual pressures are partial pressures
Symbols for partial pressure of a gas in P
stands for the specific gas
What gasses are in our atmosphere?
Nitrogen (N), Oxygen (O
), Carbon Dioxide (CO
) and Water (H
What is the total pressure of out atmosphere?
We are only concerned about
What are the partial pressures of O
in oxygenated arterial blood?
is the symbol for partial pressure of Oxygen in oxygenated (arterial) blood and is about 95 mmHg.
is the symbol for partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in oxygenated (arterial) blood and is about 40 mmHg
What are the partial pressures of O
in deoxygenated venous blood?
is the symbol for partial pressure of Oxygen in deoxygenated (venous) blood and is about 40 mmHg
is the symbol for partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide in deoxygenated (venous) blood and is about 45 mmHg
More oxygen in the air results in what?
More oxygen in the blood
What is Henry's Law?
The amount of gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to:
1. Partial Pressure of the Gas (% in air)
2. Solubility of the gas in the liquid (can not change)
3. Temperature of the liquid (temp of the blood)
What carries 98.5% of O
in the body?
98.5% of O
is carried by the iron in hemoglobin (bound to iron)
Hemoglobin (Hb) picks-up O
in the lungs (loading) and delivers it to tissues (unloading)
Loading - becomes oxyhemoglobin (Hb-O
) when it picks-up O
Unloads - becomes doexyhemoglobin (Hb-H) when O
What carries 1.5% of O
in the body?
Only 1.5% is dissolved in the plasma (mostly water)
What does Iron have a affinity for?
This affinity is greater in the lungs than in tissues
When each Hb binds with 4 O
, Hb saturation with O
What are the PO
main factors for loading and unloading?
in tissues favors unloading
In the tissues PO
is low and Hb-O
In resting person, nearly 25% of O
in the lungs favors loading
In lungs alveoli PO
is high and O
binds to Hb
What are the 5 main factors for loading and unloading of O
BPG (2,3 bisphisphoglycerate)
What are the main factors for pH loading and unloading?
Lower pH in the tissues favors unloading
Hb has less affinity for O
at lower pH
Higher pH of lungs alveoli favors loading
Hb has higher affinity for O
What are the main factors for PCO
loading and unloading?
in the tissues favors unloading
Related to pH as follows
: always in water
O = carbonic acid
O = H
Weak grip / unloading Hb picks up more O
What are the main factors for Temperature loading and unloading?
Higher temperature in tissues favors unloading
Lower temperatures in lungs favors loading
What are the main factors for BPG loading and unloading?
BPG is produced by BRC's metabolism
When BPG binds to Hb in tissues capillaries, Hb loosens its grip on O
Higher BPG favors O
unloading into tissues
Higher Metabolic rate, higher altitude and certain hormones increase BPG formation
How does fetal Hb differ from adult Hb?
Differs from adult Hb in structure and its higher affinity for binding O
Maternal blood in placenta has less O
than normal oxygenated blood
is low, fetal Hb can still bind enough O
due to the higher affinity
How does CO
bind and to what does it bind to?
comes from car exhaust, tobacco smoke and fumes
Binds to iron on the heme group to form carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) instead of oxyhemoglobin.
Binds 210 times more strong then O
0.1% CO binds to 50% of total Hb molecules
0.2% CO binds to 100% of total Hb molecules and is lethal carbon monoxide poisoning.
Treated by pure O
transportation in what % and how is the CO
7% dissolved in the plasma
23% becomes Hb-CO
70% converted to H
by carbonic anhydrase enzyme
dissociates into bicarbonate (HCO
(hooks to sodium),
Bicarbonate transportated in plasma as sodium bicarbonate
What does the Medullary Center control?
Dorsal Respiratory Group - regulates both quiet and forced respiration (normal)
Ventral Respiratory Group - Functions only during forced respiration (exercise)
What does the Pons Centers control?
Apneustic Center - produce prolonged inhalations (starts yawning)
Pneumotaxic Center - protects against lungs over-inflation by inhibiting prolonges inhalation (ends yawning)
What are the 5 factors affecting breathing?
Inflation (hering-Breuer) Reflex
How does increased CO
Hypercapnia (increased CO
) excites chemoreceptors in carotid arteries, aorta, and medulla oblongata and increases breathing rate (breathing faster)
How does decreased O
Hypoxia (decreased O
) such as at high altitudes excited chempreceptors and increases breating rate (breathing faster)
How do proprioceptors affect breathing?
Muscle contractions and joint movement increase during exercise
Increased stimulation of proprioceptors quickly increases breathing rate
Happens as soon as an exercise starts
How does the Inflation (Hering-Breuer) Reflex affect breathing?
Lungs over-inflation activates stretch receptors
Increase in nerve inpulses to Pons and Medulla inhibits apneustic and dorsal respiratory group
Inhalation stops before lungs can be damages
How does conscious control affect breathing?
Intentional breathing like when you hold your breath in a stinky bathroom or inhale to smell a perfume or aroma
What is apnea?
What is dyspnea?
What is orthopnea?
Labored breathing when lying down flat and is relieved by sitting up
What is Hyperventilation?
rapid breathing over 20 RPM
What is hypoventilation?
slow breathing under 10 RPM
What are the 4 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD's)
Chronic bronchitis - Inflammation of the bronchi
Tuberculosis - Bacterial infection in the lungs
Pneumonia - Fluid in the lung alveoli
Emphysema - Destruction of lung alveoli
What is Chronic Bronchitis?
Inflammation of the bronchi
What is Tuberculosis?
Bacterial infection in lungs
What is Pneumonia?
Fluid in the lungs alveoli
What is Emphysema?
Destruction of lung alveoli