Ch 6 Westmont Psych

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  1. Learning
    relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience
  2. Classical conditioning
    learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when associated with a stimulus that already produces the response
  3. Operant conditioning
    learning process where consequences of a naction determine likielihood that it will be performed again
  4. Unconditioned Response
    a reflex; response that doesn't need to be learned
  5. Unconditioned Stimulus
    stimulus that elicits a response or reflex without prior learning
  6. Conditioned Stimulus
    stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place
  7. Conditioned Response
    response that has been learned
  8. acquisition
    gradual formation of association between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
  9. extinction
    conditioned response is weakened whenthe conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus
  10. spontaneous recovery
    previously extinguished response reemerges following presentation of the conditioned stimulus
  11. stimulus generalization
    stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
  12. stimulus discrimination
    differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus
  13. phobia
    an acquired fear that is out of proportion tothe real threat of an object/situation
  14. Rescorla-Wagner Model
    strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extenttowhich the unconditioned stimulus is UNexpected
  15. Law of Effect
    any behavior that leads to a statisfying state of affairs will more likely occur, behaviors that lead to an annoying state of affairs will occur less likely; Thorndike's theory
  16. Reinforcer
    stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
  17. shaping
    reinforcing behaviors that are incrasingly similar to the desired behavior
  18. positive reinforcement
    increase in probability of a behavior's being repeated following the administration of a stimulus
  19. Negative Reinforcement
    increase of probability of a behavior being repeated through removal of a stimulus
  20. Positive Punishment
    administration of a stimulus that decreases the probability of a behavior recurring
  21. Negative Punishment
    removal of stimulus that decreases the probability of a behavior recurring
  22. Primary Reinforcers
    those that satisfy basic biological needs
  23. Secondary Reinforcers
    reinforcers that don't satisfy basic biological needs directly
  24. Successful Punishment
    reasonable, unpleasant, and applied immediately
  25. Continuous Reinforcement
    desired behavior is reinforced each time it occurs
  26. Partial Reinforcement
    behavior is reinforced selectively
  27. Ratio Schedule
    reinforcement is based on number of times the behavior occurs
  28. Interval Schedule
    reinforcement is availabe after a speicifc amount of time
  29. Fixed Schedule
    A schedule which reinforcement is consistently provided
  30. Variable Schedule
    reinforcementis applied at different rates or at different times
  31. Partial-Reinforcement Extinction Effect
    the great persistence of behavior is under partial reinforcement rather than continuous
  32. Behavior Modification
    Use of operant condition techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones
  33. Latent Learning
    learning taking place without reinforcement
  34. meme
    unit of knowledge transferred within a culture
  35. Observational Learning
    occurs when behaviors are acquired or modified following exposure to others performing the behavior
  36. Modeling
    the imitation of behavior through observational learning
  37. Vicarious Learning
    people learn the consequences of an action by observing others being rewarded or punished for performing the action
  38. Mirror Neurons
    neurons that are activated during observation of others performing an action
  39. Intercranial Self-Stimulation
    rats would press a lever to self-administer shock to specific sites in their brains
  40. Pleasure Centers of the Brain
    nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, medial forebrain bundle, hippocampus
  41. Habituation
    decrease in behavioral repsonse following repeated exposure to nonthreatening stimuli
  42. Sensitization
    increase in behavioral repsonse following exposure to threatening stimuli
  43. Long Term Potentation (LTP)
    strengthening of a synaptic connection so that postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated
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Ch 6 Westmont Psych
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