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thinking, feeling, and behavior will change because of practice or experience.
involuntary learning. Most basic way
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
a stimulus that does not cause a reaction
ex) doesnt make me react in anyways when im exposed to it.
Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
Creates an automatic response
Unconditional response (UCR)
is created by the UCS
- ex) food leads to saliva inside mouth
- jumping when scared
Condition Stimulus (CS)
a neutral stimulus that became conditioned
ex) squat car, one knows to slow down.
Condition response (CR)
-learned condition response
ex) see a squat car, slow down
see a needle get scared.
6 classical conditioning principles
- Stimulus generalization
-Higher Order conditioning
(6 Principles) Stimulus generalization
is tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.
ex) bitten by a dog, now afraid of all dogs.
(6 principles) Stimulus discrimination
distinguishing between a similar and specific stimulus.
ex) distinguishing white fluffy things to a rat.
(6 principles) Extinction
when behavior gets surpressed for awhile
ex) dog goes near the street nothing happens. it goes in street nothing happens.
(6 principles) Reconditioning ( re-introducing)
- re introducing the stimulus.
feelings come back stronger though
(6 principles) Spontaneous recovery
- feelings come back out of nowhere for no reason.
ex) guy gets excited when seeing former girlfriend.
(6 principles) Higher-order conditioning
taking a neutral stimulus and pairing it to a conditioned behavior
ex) MJ and MJ shoes
voluntary learning based on consequences
increases the likelihood of behavior to occur
decreases the likelihood of the behavior to occur
Law of the effect
if one does something and are pleased with consequences, they will do it again.
-satisfies a biological need
ex) food, water, sex)
ex) money, praise, attention
certain stimuli is added to reinforce
ex) work hard, get paycheck
stimuli is taken away to reinforce behavior
ex) have a headache, took advil to take headache away.
Partial schedule of reinforcement
keeps person excited or interested
4 different ways to reinforce behavior
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined number of set responses. Ratio is fixed.
ex) car wash employee gets 10 dollars every 3 cars washed
reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed, interval time is fixed.
ex) get a bi-weekly check
reinforcement occurs unpredictably. ratio varies
ex) playing the slot machines. Varies on what try you win. can be 1st or 7th.
reinforcement occurs unpredicatbly. interval time varies when it will happen again. slow progress
ex) a gamer checks his email anticipating messages to come at any time
reinforcement by a series of successively improved steps leading to desired response.
ex) driving a stick-shift car.
addition of a stimulus to punish
ex) you must run 4 laps because you were late
taking away something to punish
ex) parents take away cell phone for misbehaving
Side effects of punishment
(Side effects of punishment) Passive aggressiveness
- we tend to control our impulse toward open aggression so we show it in subtle ways.
(Side effects of punishment) Avoidance behavior
avoiding the punisher
(Side effects of punishment) Modeling
ex) child might hit another kid because its used to seeing thats a way to decrease a behavior from happening.
(Side effects of punishment) Learned helplessness
people will think generally that there is no way out of this cycle.
ex) lady wont run away abuser.
(Side effects of punishment) temporary suppression
the behavior tends to suppress only when punisher is nearby, but may revert to it when the person is not present.
ex) cop nearby, slows down, then speeds up once its out of sight
(Side effects of punishment) Increased aggression
creates a vicious aggressive circle environment