chapter 6

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  1. Learning
    thinking, feeling, and behavior will change because of practice or experience.
  2. Classical Conditioning
    involuntary learning. Most basic way
  3. Neutral Stimulus (NS)
    a stimulus that does not cause a reaction

    ex) doesnt make me react in anyways when im exposed to it.
  4. Unconditional Stimulus (UCS)
    Creates an automatic response

    ex) food
  5. Unconditional response (UCR)
    is created by the UCS

    • ex) food leads to saliva inside mouth
    • jumping when scared
  6. Condition Stimulus (CS)
    a neutral stimulus that became conditioned

    ex) squat car, one knows to slow down.
  7. Condition response (CR)
    -learned condition response

    ex) see a squat car, slow down

    see a needle get scared.
  8. 6 classical conditioning principles
    - Stimulus generalization

    -Stimulus discrimination



    -Spontaneous recovery

    -Higher Order conditioning
  9. (6 Principles) Stimulus generalization
    is tendency for the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses after the response has been conditioned.

    ex) bitten by a dog, now afraid of all dogs.
  10. (6 principles) Stimulus discrimination
    distinguishing between a similar and specific stimulus.

    ex) distinguishing white fluffy things to a rat.
  11. (6 principles) Extinction
    when behavior gets surpressed for awhile

    ex) dog goes near the street nothing happens. it goes in street nothing happens.
  12. (6 principles) Reconditioning ( re-introducing)
    - re introducing the stimulus.

    feelings come back stronger though
  13. (6 principles) Spontaneous recovery
    - feelings come back out of nowhere for no reason.

    ex) guy gets excited when seeing former girlfriend.
  14. (6 principles) Higher-order conditioning
    taking a neutral stimulus and pairing it to a conditioned behavior

    ex) MJ and MJ shoes
  15. Operant conditioning
    voluntary learning based on consequences
  16. Reinforcements
    increases the likelihood of behavior to occur
  17. Punishments
    decreases the likelihood of the behavior to occur
  18. Law of the effect
    if one does something and are pleased with consequences, they will do it again.
  19. Primary reinforcers
    -satisfies a biological need

    - unlearned

    ex) food, water, sex)
  20. Secondary reinforcers
    -non intrinsic

    -value learned

    ex) money, praise, attention
  21. Postive reinforcement
    certain stimuli is added to reinforce

    ex) work hard, get paycheck
  22. Negative reinforcement
    stimuli is taken away to reinforce behavior

    ex) have a headache, took advil to take headache away.
  23. Partial schedule of reinforcement
    keeps person excited or interested
  24. 4 different ways to reinforce behavior
    -fixed ratio

    -fixed interval

    -variable interval

    -variable ratio
  25. Fixed ratio
    reinforcement occurs after a predetermined number of set responses. Ratio is fixed.

    ex) car wash employee gets 10 dollars every 3 cars washed
  26. Fixed interval
    reinforcement occurs after a predetermined time has elapsed, interval time is fixed.

    ex) get a bi-weekly check
  27. Variable ratio
    reinforcement occurs unpredictably. ratio varies

    ex) playing the slot machines. Varies on what try you win. can be 1st or 7th.
  28. Variable interval
    reinforcement occurs unpredicatbly. interval time varies when it will happen again. slow progress

    ex) a gamer checks his email anticipating messages to come at any time
  29. Shaping
    reinforcement by a series of successively improved steps leading to desired response.

    ex) driving a stick-shift car.
  30. Positive punishment
    addition of a stimulus to punish

    ex) you must run 4 laps because you were late
  31. Negative punishment
    taking away something to punish

    ex) parents take away cell phone for misbehaving
  32. Side effects of punishment
    -passive aggressiveness

    -avoidance behavior


    -learned helplessness

    -temporary suppression

    -increased aggression
  33. (Side effects of punishment) Passive aggressiveness
    - we tend to control our impulse toward open aggression so we show it in subtle ways.

    ex) gossiping
  34. (Side effects of punishment) Avoidance behavior
    avoiding the punisher
  35. (Side effects of punishment) Modeling
    ex) child might hit another kid because its used to seeing thats a way to decrease a behavior from happening.
  36. (Side effects of punishment) Learned helplessness
    people will think generally that there is no way out of this cycle.

    ex) lady wont run away abuser.
  37. (Side effects of punishment) temporary suppression
    the behavior tends to suppress only when punisher is nearby, but may revert to it when the person is not present.

    ex) cop nearby, slows down, then speeds up once its out of sight
  38. (Side effects of punishment) Increased aggression
    creates a vicious aggressive circle environment
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chapter 6
psych chapter 6
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