CSD 318K 2

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Author:
amykath
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111876
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CSD 318K 2
Updated:
2011-10-24 20:54:58
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Morphosyntactic development
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  1. When do kids hit the 2-word utterance stage?
    18-24 months
  2. When kids hit the 2-word utterance level at _____ months, they typically have a ____ word vocabulary.
    • 18-24
    • 50
  3. A child's 2 word combinations increase rapidly in frequency - from ___% to ___% in only a few weeks.
    • 7
    • 50
  4. 2 word utterances are the earliest evidence of _____.
    syntax
  5. What are the two-word semantic rules?
    • Demonstrative (this/that + entity)
    • Recurrent + X
    • Negative + X
    • X (entity/action) + Locative (location)
    • Possessor + Possession
    • Attributive (adjective) + Entity
    • Agent + Action
    • Action + Object
    • Agent + Object (most common because it is usually two nouns
  6. What are the four forms of the two-word semantic rule Negative + X?
    • Nonexistence
    • Disappearance
    • Rejection ("No bed.")
    • Denial (Has to do with the identity of something. "Is this a ball?" "No ball.")
  7. Speech at the two-word utterance level is also called what?
    Telegraphic speech
  8. At the 2 word utterance level, some big parts of speech are still missing, such as ____, _____ and _____.
    • content words
    • open-class words
    • lexical categories
  9. Out of subject, verb and object, which is most likely to be missing from a child's speech at the two-word utterance level and why?
    Subject, because most conversations with children are about the here and now so the subject is obvious and inferred.
  10. At the 2 word utterance level, some smaller parts of speech are still missing, such as ____, _____, _____ and _____.
    • function words
    • grammatical morphemes
    • closed-class words
    • functional categories
    • (prepositions, articles, etc)
  11. When kids starts to put more than two words together, they also start adding _______.
    morphemes
  12. Children _____ add more words to their utterances.
    gradually
  13. Children are considered out of the 2 word stage when their MLU is greater than what?
    2.5
  14. MLU is based on the average length of a child's utterances scored from ______.
    spontaneous speech
  15. MLU is a good measure of _____ up to a point.
    syntactic complexity
  16. MLU is frequently used to describe a child's ______.
    developmental stage
  17. What is a morpheme?
    The smallest unit of sound that carries meaning.
  18. What are the two type of morphemes?
    Free and bound
  19. What are the two types of bound morphemes and what are their definitions?
    • Derivational - changes meaning (happy vs. UNhappy)
    • Inflectional - has to do with tense, plurality, possession (only 8 in English)
  20. What is morphology?
    A system of rules combining the smallest units of language into words.
  21. What is the formula for calculating MLU?
    Total # of morphemes / Total # of utterances
  22. What are the four specific contractions counted as one morpheme?
    let's, don't, won't, ain't
  23. What are the three verb types?
    • Main verbs
    • Copluar verbs
    • Auxiliary verbs
  24. What is a copular verb?
    It is a linking verb. It will be the only verb in the sentence. (I am fine. She appears tall. He feels great.)
  25. What is an auxiliary verb?
    It is a helping verb. It tells about certainty or gives emphasis. (I am struggling. Did you eat? We will help.)
  26. What are some auxiliary verbs?
    be, have, do, will, may, can, should
  27. What are the forms of be?
    am, is, are was, were, being, been
  28. Be can be _____ or ______.
    • copular
    • auxiliary
  29. Identify the contractability of BE
    I am happy.
    uncontracted copula
  30. Identify the contractability of BE
    I am helping.
    uncontracted auxiliary
  31. Identify the contractability of BE
    I'm happy.
    contracted copula
  32. Identify the contractability of BE
    I'm helping.
    contracted auxiliary
  33. Identify the contractability of BE
    Who's Vicki? I am.
    uncontractible copula
  34. Identify the contractability of BE
    Who's wearing a hat. He is.
    uncontractible auxiliary
  35. Identify the contractability of BE
    He was asking.
    uncontractible auxiliary
  36. Verb Forms
    -ing indicates what verb form?
    Progressive
  37. Verb Forms
    Have eaten and had eaten are examples of what verb form?
    Perfect
  38. Describe Stage I in Brown's Stages of Language Development.
    • MLU: 1-2
    • Age: 16-26 months
    • Characteristics: Linear semantic rule
  39. Describe Stage II in Brown's Stages of Language Development.
    • MLU: 2.0-2.5
    • Age: 21-35 months
    • Characteristics: Morphological development (-ing, plurals, etc all begin to show up)
  40. Describe Stage III in Brown's Stages of Language Development.
    • MLU: 2.5-3
    • Age: 24-41 months
    • Characteristics: Sentence form development - negation and question
  41. Describe Stage IV in Brown's Stages of Language Development.
    • MLU: 3-3.75
    • Age: 28-45 months
    • Characteristics: Embedding of sentence elements (prepositional phrases, dependent clauses)
  42. Describe Stage V in Brown's Stages of Language Development.
    • MLU: 3.75-4.5
    • Age: 37-52 months
    • Characteristics: Conjoining of clauses
  43. Stage V+ of Brown's Stages of Language Development is just anything with an MLU over ____ and aged typically over _____.
    • 4.5
    • 41 months
  44. What are the 14 morphemes studied by Brown?
    • Two prepositions (in, on)
    • Two articles (a, the) - counted as one
    • Noun inflections ('s, plural s)
    • Verb inflections (-ing, 3rd person present regular/irregular, 3rd person past tense regular/irregular
    • The verb BE (copula contractible/uncontractible, auxiliary contractible/uncontractible)
  45. Name the order of acquisition for Brown's 14 morphemes.
    • present progressive (no auxiliary)
    • in
    • on
    • regular plural s
    • irregular past
    • possessive 's
    • uncontractible copula (verb to be as main verb)
    • articles
    • regular past -ed
    • regular third person s
    • irregular third person
    • uncontractible auxiliary
    • contractible copula
    • contractible auxiliary
  46. What could be some explanations for the morphemes that show up first on Brown's list?
    • Acoustically easier to hear - full syllables
    • Concrete or ongoing activities, things you can see
  47. Acqusition of grammatical morphemes takes _____ and is not ________.
    • a long time
    • an all or nothing phenomenon
  48. The ______ is very similar across different children.
    order of acquisition
  49. What are the two ways to look at morphological mastery?
    • percent correct in obligatory contexts (Brown set mastery at 90% accuracy)
    • productivity
  50. In the context of productivity, morphological mastery is knowing the rule and being able to apply it _____ and _____.
    • consistently
    • even in cases never heard before
  51. The Berko/Wug test tests mastery in ______.
    productivity
  52. Sometimes errors may indicate ________.
    productive rule use
  53. What is overregularization?
    An overapplication of rules to irregular parts of the language. (foots, runned, wented)
  54. What is U-shaped development?
    The child appears proficient in the use of a morpheme then gets worse (from overapplying the rule or missing the exceptions) and then improves again.
  55. Age of mastery in morphological development varies based on _____ and _____. What may be more stable than age?
    • definition
    • individual differences
    • Order

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