Euro Ch 13 and 16

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Euro Ch 13 and 16
2011-10-24 20:06:45
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  1. The 4 Stages of European Contact with the World (p516)
    - Discovery / Settlement – 1500s-1600s- Mercantilist Empires – 1700s – policies designed to increase trade / decrease power of rivals. Navies develop / limited colonial wars- Formal Empires – 1800s – mid 1900s Direct administration – British Dominance- DEcolonization – 1950s+
  2. Mercantilism (p 517):
    THE dominant Economic theory of the first semester.Belief that governments heavily regulate trade and commerce in hope of increasing national wealth. The Goal was to have the most gold in the government coffers. ---- Countries obtained wealth by selling more goods abroad than they purchased. - ---- Rules should be established which promoted your country’s businesses (granting subsidies / monopolies) and reduced other countries businesses (taxes on imports). - Colonies were created in this system because they provided 1) cheap resources and 2) captive markets to buy your stuff. Mercantilism is based on the flawed notion that wealth is 1) finite and 2) based on gold/silver.
  3. Balance of Power
    The relationship between the major countries during the 1700s No one country could gain dominance over the others; although, all of them wanted and tried to. Whenever any one country would begin to dominate, and alliance would form against them. Kinda like Whac-a-Mole.
  4. French-British Colonial Rivalry
    By the 1700s France and Britain were the dominant colonial powers.They conflicted in the Northern Hemisphere (the mid west), the Caribian (West Indies) and new ports in IndiaBritain won in all areas as a result of the 7 Years War (1763) and became the dominant colonial empire for the next 200 years
  5. Prussian-Austrian Rivalry
    THE dominant conflict in Central Europe was between the rising Prussians and the decaying Hapsburgs over who would be the dominant 1) German power & 2) central European power.Prussia will gradually win this fight.
  6. War of Jenkins Ear 1739
    War between Spain and England over trade in the West Indies. Significance: got many of the later wars going.
  7. Silesia: (532)
    Small strip of land owned by Hapsburg Austria. Prussia always coveted it because it separates Brandenburg from Prussia. IF Prussia could gain it, Prussia would finally connect her lands. Frederick succeeds in the War of Austrian Succession.
  8. War of Austrian Succession (1740 – 1748)
    War between Austria and Prussia over Silesia. Frederick the Great wanted it, Maria Theresa of Austria was determined to keep it. She failed. France Supported Prussia and England supported Austria. The War ended in stalemate, but Prussia retained it’s prize from the war: Silesia
  9. Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
    Ends the War of Austrian Succession. Prussia keeps the territory gained from Austria: Silesia. Maria Theresa gets to stay in power
  10. The Diplomatic Revolution
    After centuries of French-Austrian conflict, Maria Theresa turns to France as an ally (to serve as a counter-weight to Prussia). It was an amazing turn of events. It would be the modern equivalent of Iran and Israel becoming allies in the Middle East.
  11. The Seven Years War (1756-1763)
    What begins as a Prussian- Austrian conflict in central Europe erupts into a full scale colonial war between England (Prussia’s ally) and France (Austria’s ally) over much of the Globe. England will emerge as the dominant colonial power, France will be bankrupted and lose its colonies. Prussia reduces the Holy Roman Empire to a shell and becomes the dominant German power. Austria will shift its focus toward eastern Europe and the Balkans .
  12. The Treaty of Paris (1763)
    Treaty ending the 7 Years War: - Britain gets Canada / everything east of the Mississippi river.- Britain also gains dominance over India.
  13. Magyars (533)
    The dominant minority in the Austrian Empire. These Hungarians will use their power to extract rights/concessions from the Hapsburg monarchy. So not only are the Austrians dealing with the Prussian outside their country, they’ve got unrest within their country.
  14. - Good Queen Anne
    Last Stuart Monarch who died childless in the early 1700s.
  15. - Hanover Dynasty
    The Dynasty of England during the 1700 and 1800s. Followed the Stuart Dynasty of the 1600s
  16. - King George
    First Hanover king of England. He had been the closest living protestant relative of Queen Anne. During his reign, the monarchy lost real power and Britain began the development of their modern system of cabinet government with a Prime Minister.
  17. - Prime Minister:
    The Head of the Government in England whose office developed during the 1700s. The Monarch of England chooses the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons to be the Prime Minister.
  18. - Robert Walpole
    First Prime Minister of England (early-mid 1700s) under the new Hanoverian, King George
  19. Dutch Golden Age
    A period of Dutch History (1600s ) in which The Dutch Republic dominated world trade and used that wealth to become the world’s center for arts and sciences. However, they were a seafaring power, NOT a military power. France will emerge in this era as the dominant military power.
  20. The Spanish Netherlands
    The southern part of the Low Countries that stayed loyal to Spain. During this chapter, The Spanish Netherlands are still ruled by Spain, but will be invaded by France, and eventually given to the Austrians by the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). Its capital was Brussels
  21. The Dutch Republic
    The Northern Dutch that fought for independence against Spain. Their culture and economy will flourish during the 1600s
  22. Reasons for Dutch Prosperity
    - Religious Tolerance – Urban Culture – Overseas Trade – Seaborne Empire in Asia / New World
  23. reasons for Dutch Decline
    - During the 1700s- British Naval gains – Disunity of Provinces – French Military harassment
  24. Rembrandt van Rijn
    shading and lighting- The Night Watch: Rembrandt’s colossal painting of a company of Dutch fighters - The Syndics of the Drapers Guild: Rembrandt’s work that demonstrates the status of middle- class businessmen during the Dutch Golden Age
  25. Absolute vs Constitutional Monarchy
    The 2 Models of government structure that develop during the 1600s
  26. Stuart Monarchy
    Family of Monarchs in England after the Tudors. James VI of Scotland becomes the first Stuart Monarch (James I) in 1603 after his cousin Elizabeth I dies. England develops a limited (constitutional) monarchy during their rein.
  27. James I- King of England (first Stuart monarch);
    was James VI of Scotland, didn’t understand Parliament and refused Puritan demands to eliminate Episcopal system of church organization in the Church of England; ruled by divine right. Anger and dissent gradually increased during his rein (1603 – 1625)
  28. The English Civil War 1642-1651
    War between the Supporters of Charles I and monarchy on one side and the supporters of Cromwell and the parliament on the other. Results with the execution of Charles I in 1649A major step in the limitation of monarchy in England and the strengthening of Parliament.
  29. Charles I-
    King of England during the Civil War and eventually executed.He avoids calling Parliament for 11 years, introduces more ritual into Anglican Church which upsets Puritans. His need for cash for the war on Scotland instigated the English Civil War; is beheaded by the Rump Parliament
  30. Oliver Cromwell
    - Leader of the Parliamentarians against Charles I in the English Civil War- Executed Charles I and created the Commonwealth-Eventually became Dictator (Lord Protector) by disbanding Parliament and ruling alone.
  31. Archbishop Laud:
    Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I Attempted to impose an Episcopal System on the Presbyterian Scots. (which starts the Civil War)
  32. Presbyterian System:
    Religious system that is NON-hierarchical. The Scots had a Presbyterian system since John Knox brought Calvinism. This starts a war, which costs money, which forces Charles I to call Parliament, and … well you know what happens next.
  33. Episcopal System
    Hierarchical setup of a church. The Church of England has an Episcopal setup, with a rigid organization of Bishops. The number of Englishmen who want a less rigid system is growing during the 1600s.
  34. Long Parliament:
    Nickname for The Parliament was called during King Charles I’s reign, led the revolt against him, executed him, and then ruled during the Commonwealth. It’s not an official title. It is just what historians refer to it as.
  35. Petition of Rights:
    The Document that the Short Parliament forced Charles I to sign outlining the rights of Englishmen. After signing it, Charles dissolves Parliament and ignores it (for the next 11 years)Just be aware that the Petition of Rights and the Bill of Rights are not the same thing.
  36. Cavaliers:
    Supporters of the King in the English Civil War
  37. Roundheads:
    Supporters of Parliament in the English Civil War. Puritans
  38. New Model Army
    Professional, dedicated, religious, and very effective Army Created by Oliver Cromwell
  39. The Puritan Revolution
    1) A lesser used title for the English Civil War2) Sometimes used to describe the Puritan hijacking of the Parliamentary cause.The Puritan Rump Parliament’s taking of power from the other Parliamentarians
  40. Rump Parliament:
    the smaller parliament of around 75 members, controlled by Cromwell and the Puritans that kills Charles, abolishes the House of Lords, and establishes the Commonwealth. Oh, the Rump Parliament is what the Long Parliament is called in its last years.
  41. The Commonwealth:
    Government created after the Civil War in which the Monarchy, the House of Lords, and The Anglican Church are abolished.It is a REPUBLICAN government. (A Republic is any government without a king)It is created by the Rump Parliament and ruled by Cromwell
  42. The Protectorate (1653-58)
    The Military Dictatorship of Cromwell created when he disbanded the Parliament altogether.
  43. Lord Protector:
    Oliver Cromwell’s title that he took when becoming DICTATOR of England
  44. Levelers:
    Early democrats. More radical than radical Cromwell, and crushed by Cromwell. Example of how revolutionaries want to make their changes and then STOP the revolutionary spirit from going any farther. It rarely works.
  45. Diggers:
    Early Socialists. Brutally put down by Cromwell. Shows that revolutionaries (Cromwell) usually do not want the revolution to go beyond where they want to take it. (the diggers had gone too far for him)
  46. The Restoration
    The Period after the Commonwealth when The Stuarts (Charles II); the House of Lords; and the Anglican Church were restored to power. Can refer to either the event in 1660 or the period of time. 1660-1688
  47. Charles II
    Son of Charles I who was restored to the throne in 1660. Kept his head. Very smart.
  48. James II-
    King of England; Charles II’s very Catholic brother who is overthrown by the nobles in the Glorious RevolutionHe engages in a series of antagonistic moves against Parliament and Protestants. However, rather than go through the upheaval of regicide again, Englishmen decide to “wait it out” for his death and the ascension of his cool protestant daughter.*but then…his new wife has a son (Catholic); . . .
  49. Glorious Revolution 1688 – 1689
    The “bloodless” revolution and overthrow of James II by nobles determined to assert the Rights of Parliament. Culminates in the joint-reign of William and Mary; the passage of the Bill of Rights! : and the passage of the Toleration Act. England will now be a Constitutional Monarchy.
  50. William and Mary-
    King and Queen of England; William of Orange married to Mary, one of James’s Protestant daughters. Invited to invade England to stop James’s new son from getting the throne. Wisely accepted the Bill of Rights and embraced the idea of limited (constitutional) monarchy
  51. BILL of Rights:
    Document outlining British Rights that were accepted by William and Mary in 1689's Glorious Revolution. Important step in the creation of British Government/
  52. Toleration Act:
    Part of the Glorious Revolution. Law signed by William and Mary that allowed Puritans the right to publicly worship.
  53. The Test Act
    Anti-Catholic laws passed by Parliament. Created a religious test for public office stating only members of the established Church of England were eligible for service.
  54. Important dates:
    1603-Death of Elizabeth- Tudors end / Stuarts begin
- beginning of the story1649-Execution of Charles - good reference-point since you don't need to know all of the dates in this story.1688 - Glorious Revolution 
2nd uber-major date of the class. (1517 being the other)
  55. Cardinal Richelieu-
    Louis XIII’s chief governmental minister. 1) Eliminates political/military rights of Huguenots while keeping religious rights to make them more dependable. 2) Spies to uncover plots/conspiracies 3) creates Intendants to execute orders; his policies eventually strengthen the monarchy
  56. Louis XIII:
    Puppet King of France for Cardinal Richelieu. King during the 30 Years War
  57. Raison d’etat :
    Cardinal Richelieu’s philosophy of government summed up in a quick phrase. Reason of State. There is NO limit to a king’s rightful authority IF he can justify it for the good of the State, Total contradiction of the Right-based philosophy of government that you have.
  58. Intendant
    Government officials who work for the crown. The creation of Indendants from the middle class or the Nobles of the Robe allowed kings to siphon off the power of Nobility.
  59. Louis XIV- (1643-1715)
    King of France (Bourbon) who serves as the best representation of an absolute monarch; called the Sun King; created Versailles as a home to his nobility; hired Colbert as the minister of finance; mercantilism; enacted the Edict of Fontainebleau; War of Spanish Succession
  60. Absolutism
    - form of government in which all power is vested in a single ruler or other authority
  61. Divine Right
    - Philosophy that God chooses who has the right to the throne. Contradicts our notion of equality.- Articulated by Bishop Bossuet & James I
  62. Anne of Austria
    Wife of Louis XIII, Mom of Louis XIV. Runs France (with Mazarin) while Louis is a kid. She’s a Hapsburg. Hmmm Hapsburg-Bourbon union. Their kids will cause trouble in Spain
  63. the Fronde (Frondeurs)
    Early French Rebels against Louis XIV’s when he’s a kid. The terror that he experiences convinces him to get out of Paris (go to Versailles) and to be tough against rebellion.
  64. Nobles of the Robe/Sword-
    --Nobles of the Sword are hereditary noble from the middle ages and must be weakened if a king is to exercise real authority. Louis gives them a social life in Versailles so that they do not get in the way of government business. --Nobles of the Robe are the wealthy middle class nobles created by Louis XIV to help run the country. (and siphon power from the Nobles of the Sword)
  65. The Sun King
    - Louis XVI, meaning he’s the light of his country. France revolves around him. Symbol of his reign
  66. “I am the state”-
    Louis XVI ‘s famous quote. - Government is not the people, nor is Government it the body of ministers. Government resides in the person of Louis XVI. Used to justify any actions.
  67. Bishop Bossuet:
    Famous theorist for Absolute Monarchy. Argued “Divine Right” of kings
  68. Jean Baptiste Colbert:
    Economic Advisor for Louis XIV. Associated with Mercantilism
  69. Edict of Fontainebleau:
    Louis XIV. Repeals the Edict of Nantes. Bans Huguenots. Part of a return to “One King, One Faith, One Law”
  70. Jansenists:
    Catholic Radicals in France. Louis XIV lays the smack down on them. Significance: Shows that Louis is not REALLY concerned about religion. But will smack whomever necessary to consolidate his power.
  71. Philip III & IV:
    sad kings of Spain after Philip II. They are associated with the decline of Spain
  72. War of Spanish Succession-
    Spain’s ruler leaves throne to Louis XVI’s grandson, Philip. England, Holland, Austria, and German states fear France and Spain will join (Louis’s grandson will eventually gain France’s throne also) and throw off the balance of power. Ends with treaty saying Philip may take Spanish throne but the French and Spanish thrones must be separated.
  73. Peace of Utrecht:
    Peace treaty that ends the War of Spanish Succession. Creates 2 Bourbon houses (one in France and a new one in Spain)
  74. Philip of Anjou
    Louis XIV's grandson. Spanish War of Succession.
  75. Frederick I & Frederick William I-
    Kings of Prussia (Hohenzollern) who create an absolutist state in central Europe.Gave nobles free reign over peasants, no taxes,etc. in return that they do not challenge his control. Follow mercantilist policies. Enacted religious toleration.Hohenzollern dynasty- Powerful German Family of Northern Germany. Will become rivals of the Hapsburgs for supremacy in central Europe.
  76. Junkers-
    Prussian nobility
  77. Brandenburg-Prussia
    Non-contiguous holdings of the Hohenzollern dynasty.Major north-eastern German state after the 30 Years War. The German State of Brandenburg was the traditional holding of the Hohenzollern family. The Duchy of Prussia was outside of the HRE (in Poland) and was acquired by them in1618.
  78. Kingdom of Prussia:
    In 1701, Frederick III proclaims Brandenburg-Prussia to be the Kingdom of Prussia. He will become Frederick I King IN Prussia
  79. Peter the Great-
    Tsar of Russia; wants to westernize his country. Gains control of Orthodox Church, makes Russia into great state/military power; creates the table of ranks
  80. Tsar-
    ruler of Russia
  81. Boyars
    - Russian nobles. Peter will try to "westernize" them.
  82. Duma-
    a council of Boyars who assisted the tsar in Russia
  83. Table of Ranks
    Peter I’s creation of a new system of Nobility. A system based on service, not on birth. It was the cornerstone of his plan to weaken the Russian nobility.
  84. Patriarchs:
    Religious leader of the Orthodox Church. Peter will abolish this position and transform the Russian Orthodox Church into an office of Government
  85. St Petersburg: "window to the west"
    Peter’s new capital for Russia. It is 500 miles west of Moscow and on the Baltic Sea.Part of Peter’s goal of westernization of Russia