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2011-10-24 21:00:41
Chapter 21

A&P Chapter 21
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  1. Define pathogens and contrast the response time of innate and adaptive immunity.
    • Pathogen = disease producing organism.
    • Innate immunity = present at birth, provides rapid response against disease
    • Adaptive immunity = Occurs more slowly & develops in response to specific pathogens
  2. Summarize the lymphatic system by:
    1)Distinguishing between interstitial fluid and lymph
    2)Describing the composition of lymphatic tissue
    3)Describing the functions of the lymphatic system
    • 1)interstitial fluid is located in the space surrounding the cells, lymph is located in the lymphatic vessels
    • 2)Reticular connective tissue containing lymphocytes
    • 3)Drains excess interstitial fluid, Transport dietary lipids from the gastrointestinal tract to the blood and protect against invasion through immune responses.
  3. Describe lymphatic capillaries.
    • The structure of lymphatic capillaries allows interstitial fluid to flow in but not out, and are permeable.
    • ADDITION:Lymphatic capillaries accept interstitial fluid, but their one way structures does not permit the fluid to flow out.The endothelial that overlap and open when the pressure of interstitial fluid is greater that of lymph.
  4. Describe the sequence of lymphatic structures a drop of lymph encounters from the time it leaves the interstitial spaces until it reaches venous blood
    Interstitial Space --> Lymphatic Capillaries --> Lymphatic Vessels --> Lymph Nodes --> More Lymphatic Vessels --> Lymphatic Ducts --> Venous Blood
  5. Explain how skeletal muscle contractions and breathing help maintain the flow of lymph.
    • Skeletal muscle contractions-- a "milking" action that forces lymph to internal jugular & subclavian veins
    • Breathing-- maintained by pressure changes from inhaling & exhaling; valves prevent backflow
  6. Summarize lymphatic organs and tissues by:
    1)Naming the organs of the lymphatic system
    2)Describing the flow of lymph through a lymph node
    3)Stating two examples of lymphatic tissue in the gastrointestinal tract
    • 1)Thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, lymphatic nodules
    • 2)afferent vessels --> sinuses --> efferent vessels.
    • 3)1.Peyer's patches (lymphatic nodules) in the ileum, 2.Palatine tonsils in the back of the oral cavity.
  7. Describe the physical and chemical barriers that form the first line of defense against pathogens and foreign substances.
    • Physical: skin, hair, mucus, cilia, flow of urine
    • Chemical: saliva, sebum, lysozyme, tears, vaginal secretions, gastric juices
  8. State the source and function of interferons.
    • Source---from virus-infected cells
    • Function---blocks virus replication( by stimulating the production of anti-viral proteins that stops replication).
  9. Describe the function of natural killer cells.
    NK cells attack and kill pathogens and defective cells in the body. Also they attack body cells with abnormal or unusual plasma membrane protiens.
  10. Describe phagocytes by stating the:
    1)Two major types of phagocytes
    2)Origin of macrophages
    3)Function of phagocytes
    • 1)neutrophils, macrophages
    • 2)derived from monocytes after migration to infected/inflammed tissues
    • 3)ingest and destroy microbes, cell debris, and other foreign matter by a process known as phagocytosis.
  11. Describe inflammation by:
    1)Stating the conditions that can produce inflammation
    2)Stating the signs and symptoms of inflammation
    3)Stating the beneficial purpose of inflammation
    4)Describing the inflammatory response (the exam will not ask the names of specific inflammatory substances)
    5)Defining pusExplaining the cause of each of the signs and symptoms of inflammation
    • 1)extremely cold and hot temperatures, cellular damage, invasion by pathogens, cuts, certain chemicals
    • 2)heat, pain, redness and swelling
    • 3)promotion of healing by tissue repair, disposal of pathogens, and limiting their spread to distal sites
    • 4)1. Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability, 2. Phagocytic cell emigration 3. Chemotaxis and pathogen killing
    • 5)Heat--> increased flow of blood and higher metabolism at the site of inflammation, Redness-->dilated arterioles allow large amounts of blood to accumulate at the injured site, Pain-->injured neurons, released microbial toxic substances, pressure of edema, Edema-->increased vascular permeabilization
  12. Define abscess.
    • a localized collection of pus and liquefied tissue in a cavity.
    • The pus consists of dead phagocytic cells and tissue debris
  13. Explain how a mild fever can benefit your body.
    • A mild fever helps make interferons (protein that prevents the replication of a virus) more effective
    • Helps stop the production of some microbes
    • Makes the reactions that help with repair faster.
  14. Summarize adaptive (specific) immunity by:
    1)Defining adaptive immunity
    2)Stating two properties that distinguish adaptive immunity from innate immunity
    3)Defining immunocompetence
    4)Distinguishing between B and T lymphocytes with regard to their origin, maturation into immunocompetent cells, and general function
    5)Distinguish between cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunityDefining antibodies
    6)Describing antigens
    • 1)The body's defense activities against specific pathogens and antigens
    • 2)
    • 5)>Antibodies or immunoglobulins are certain specific proteins that are produced in response to specific antigens and are capable of inactivating it.
    • 6) foreign substances that trigger an immune response.
  15. 1)Define autoimmune disease.
    2)Briefly explain how autoimmune disease can occur.
    3)Describe two autoimmune diseases.
    • 1)when the immune system fails to tolerate and attacks the body's own tissue.
    • 2)Immune system turns against itself, can not distinguish what are foreign anitgens and itself.Production of antibodies and Tc Cells that destroy its own tissue
    • 3)Multiple Sclerosis: white matter of the brain and spinal cord is destroyed
    • Grave's Disease: Thyroid gland overproduces thryoxine
  16. Describe the role of antigen-presenting cells.
    Antigen-presenting cells (APC's) digest and process pathogens.
  17. Summarize the functions of
    1)helper T cells and
    2)cytotoxic T cells.
    • 1)increases production of antibodies, T cells and B cells.
    • 2)Kills target cells including microbes by stopping target cell internal activity resulting in cell death or by stopping cellular replication.
  18. 1)Define AIDS and state its full name.Name the virus that produces AIDS.
    2)Explain how AIDS is transmitted.
    3)State which immune system cells are attacked by the AIDS virus. For all our sake, please do read the remainder of this important AIDS discussion even though this additional information will not be covered on your exam.
    • 1)Aquired immunodeficiency syndrome- a condition where the person is infected by HIV and is in the late stages. The person tends to get many infections due to destruction of the immune system. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) produces AIDS.
    • 2)Since HIV is present in the blood and some body fluids, it is most effectively transmitted by actions or practices that involve the exchange of blood or body fluids between people.
    • 3)Helper T cells
  19. Summarize antibody-mediated immunity by describing:
    1)B cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation
    2)Plasma cells and memory cells
    3)The actions of antibodies
    • 1)
    • 2)after activation of a B cell,a clone of plasma cells and memory B cells are formed. Plasma cells secrete specific antibodies. these cells secrete a lot of antibodies each day (starting after few days of exposure) for 4 to 5 days untilss they die.
    • 3) neutralizes, immobilizes, clumps and moves antigens, enhancing phagocytosis, and activating the complement system
  20. Define:
    1)allergic reactions
    3)infectious mononucleosis
    • 1)when someone cannot tolerate a substance that many people can. the reactions can cause tissue damage
    • 2)The antigens that induce an allergic reaction
    • 3) A disease caused by Epstein-Barr Virus, transmitted from person to person by oral contact(a.k.a kissing disease) and characterized by fatigue ,dizziness,headache,sore throat,fever and enlarged and painful lymph nodes.
  21. Define monoclonal antibodies and list the diagnostic uses of monoclonal antibodies.
    Monoclonal antibodies are produced by a single clone of B cells (specific against only 1 epitope of an antigen) that have been fused with a cancer cell to be able to replicate endlessly.
  22. 1)lymph nodes
    2)the spleen
    • 1)They act like a filter. when lymph enters a lymph node forein substances become trapped by the reticular fibers in the sinuses of lymph node. Then, macrophages destroy some of the foreign substances while lymphocytes destroy the rest of them by immune response.Finally, the filtered lymph leaves the node from the other side of the node.
    • 2)contains the venous sinuses where blood from the stomach travels and is cleanse and filters the blood. It uses the B and T cells that start an immune response to trap the microbes and destroy it. With old or damaged blood it will remove it, store it like platelets or produce more blood cells (during fetal life)
    • 3) effectively positioned lymphatic nodules near the possible entry of microbes into the body (Nasopharynx, tongue). They trap the pathogens as they are being inhaled or ingested. (Pharyngeal, Palatine, Lingual tonsils)
  23. Define the complement system and explain complement's three functions
    • Complements 3 functions:
    • Enhances phagocytosis by coating microbes with C3b.
    • Cytolysis: bursting of microbe due to inflow of extracellular fluid through channel formed by membrane attack complex C5-C9.
    • Inflammation: Increases blood vessel permeability and chemotactic attraction of phagocytes.
  24. Describe
    1)immunological memory,
    2)the primary response,
    3)the secondary response,
    • 1)The immune system’s ability to retain “memory” of the specific antigens that have triggered a previous response. Immunological memory exists due to the presence of long lasting antibodies and lymphocytes that are in the immune system during clonal selection of antigen-stimulated B cell and T cells.
    • 2)Is triggered by the first exposure to an antigen, this is a slow rise in antibody titer several days after exposure, followed by a gradual decline.
    • 3)The accelerated response to an antigen after a subsequent exposure is caused by memory B cells and memory T cells that remain in the body.
    • 4) Vaccinations of weakened or killed whole microbes or portions of microbes trigger a primary response so in the future if you encounter live microbes the much quicker secondary response will be initiated.
  25. State the functions of the following:
    1)Cisterna chyli
    2)Thoracic duct
    3)Right lymphatic duct
    4)ThymusLymph node
    5)Afferent lymphatic vessels
    6)Efferent lymphatic vessels
    7)Cervical nodes
    8)Axillary nodes
    9)Inguinal nodes
    • 1) it is the dilation of the thoracic duct near the anterior of the second lumbar vertebrae to receive lymph from the left & right lumbar trunk and intestinal trunk
    • 2)Drains lymph from the cisterna chyli, the left upper limb, left thorax, left neck, and left head into the left brachiocephalic vein and the junction of the left internal jugular and left subclavian veins.
    • 3)
    • 4)Filter- drains excess tissue fluid, filters back to veins
    • Transportation- transports some fats
    • Protection- houses lymphoctes and macrophages to carry out immune repsonses.
    • 5)they penetrate the surface of the node many times and they contain valves that OPEN TOWARD the center of the node to direct the lymph INWARD
    • 6)They contains that open away from the center of the lymph node to convey lymph out of the node.
    • 7)
    • 8)
    • 9)