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What is the Royal Proclaimation Act of 1763?
- Prohibits the English from setting in the Aplachian Mountains b/c they wanted to use that area for the Natives to reduce friction.
- Grants Quebec Colony status w/ and elected assembly and a Governor. They can create their own laws.
Who did not like the Royal Proclaimation Act of 1763? Why
- The British Colonists
- The British believe that moving into the Apalachian Mountains was there right (like moving into their backyard).
- Quebec is given rights of a British Colony and it's own elective assembly and Governor. Which is something many of the other Colonies wanted.
- The British do not follow the british administration law and it is one of the factors of the American revolution.
What is the Test Act?
- implemented in 1763
- Royal Proclaimation of 1763 allowed the French to enjoy all privledges like Native born English men
- However, the Test Act prevents anyone that is Catholic from participating in Politics in British North America. so french Catholics were not allowed to particiapate.
- Essentially you ended up with a Minority (British) governering a majority (French)
Who is General James Murray?
- Appointed governor in 1761
- He does implement the Royal Proclaimation act of 1763. BC he does not think there is enough British people and he has sympathy for the French.
- French people like but the British do not (see him as a traitor)
- Don't like bc he allows French civil law to continue. Murray does try to be fair.
- English in the colony complain to other government officials in the colony and write petitions to the British parliament. But Murray does not change. Some British administers see Murray’s ideas and support but the majority of the British are unhappy and lead to Murray being recalled to Great Britain.
What are the Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts?
- Passed in 1774
- Secures British control within the BNA colonies
- makes all governement positions appointed by the British administration in Britian. which is a step backward form democratic institutions (future americans want democracy)
- Towns have to provide some kind of accomadations for British slodiers.
- Passed bc of the growing unrest of civil problems in the 13 colonies.
Who is Guy Carleton?
- governor after murray
- ambitous and wants to make a good impression on those in the UK.
- Though flattery and coercion he is able to impose his authority on Quebec.
- does not find the Royal Proclamiation Act of 1763 very practical and propses to lead by French civil law
- Wanted to get the French Canadian's more involved in the gov't. he tried to build confedence and trust between the French Canadians and the British authorities. However, the power structure does not change but some French are integrated into the gov't.
What is the Quebec Act?
- Part of the Coercive acts (1774)
- recognixes the Roman catholic church and that it can impose taxes
- recognizes french civil law
- recognizes that the french have language rights in Quebec
- However, criminal law is still British
- allows public office holders to be catholic
- it is soothing for the French but it ticks the future Americans off even more.believe that in recognizing the Catholic religion it cuts out some of their tradition and promotes the French language and religion,
What is the Constitonal Act of 1791
- To accomadate English speaking refugees. People who were loyah to the British empire and have migrated up to the BNA
- Quebec is divided into upper (Ontario) and Lower (Southern Quebec) Canada
- With Upper Canada having Brititish laws and instituions and lower Canada having French law and institutions
- Quebec is given a real represented gov't where the French can particpate.
- establishes a uniform church (anglophone) and that church is given land grants. causing resitment in Quebec.
Why are the 13 British colonies revolting and why are the other 17 not?
- the 13 colonies are angry with the Royal Prcolamiation Act, test act, coercive acts, Quebec act, and taxation-it has not gone down since the war ended.
- the other 17 may not have revolted bc they are too close ti Britian (too many new immigrants), they have no issue, feel safe
- The war of American indepoence occurs because there is a clash in what people see as right.
American revolution and Canada
Arnold and Montgomery
- British troops in Boston were trying to take some ammunition form the colonial militia when they were fired on by the rebel british.
- In the begining the Rebel British try to persuade all of BNA to revolt. but most are neutral or are anti revolutionary. to persuade Canada to joint the revolt the americans invade Canada.
- Two american armies lead by Arnold and Montgomery invade. Montgomery is able to take Montreal. However, when Arnold and Montgomery try to invade Quebec city Montgomery dies in the attmept.
- at the the end of 1775 British is holding the Maritimes and Quebec city. but the British do defeat the invasions and the Americans do not invade Canada again.
When do the Americans delcare their indepence from Britain?
July 4, 1776
What are the armies like during the American revolution?
- the British have a well trained army
- the colonial army is intially not up to par so the British did have the upper hand
- as the war continues British are only able to control the territory that they directly occupy. while the colonists control teh Rural territory
British Garson and Phildelphia
- In 1777 the British Garson is reinforced and at the same time 10 000 British troops move from Quebec city into New Enlgand, and a larger Biritsh army moves from New Jersey in Phildelphia.
- Phildephia was important because that was the colonial capital.
British and other cities during the revolution
defeats and there consquence
- British take some cities with little trouble but they also suffer great deafeats
- Oct 1777 a british army finds it self surrended by colnial troops and the British are outnumbered, have a shortage of supplies, and winter is coming. The British army surrenders itself to the colonists. Other British armies find themselves surrendering to the Colonists as well.
- with the surrendering it has a psychological affect on the colnials, they begin to think that they can win.
Who is Benjamin Franklin
- is motivated by the american defeating the British to go to France and ask for their help on the American side.
- he leaves Dec 1777 and remains in France until 1785.
- during the war franklin is giving the position of American Minister to France. he is to keep the goals of the Americans in mind of the French.
- He gets both military and fincial aide for the americans from france.
- with the treaty of Amity and Commece and the Treaty of Alliance
What is the treaty of Amity and Commerce
- signed Feb 1778
- between the French and Americans
- shows that the Americans and the French are independant countries
- commiercial alliance
- French and American ships do not have to pay duties while in the othe countries ports.
- French and Americans can hold land and under go ship repairs in the other country. aka France in America and America in France
What is the treaty of Alliance?
- May 1778 and is good until 1783
- France and America would aide each other if Britian attacked one or the other.
- neither country would make peace with Britain until the 13 colonies were independant
- neither could conclude treaties with another country unless there were diplomats from country present
- mutally beneifiacal treaty
- but the French were directly invloved in the conflict and the French were hurt ecnomically.
France and the American War of Indepence
- france had been aiding the Americans in secret since 1775.
- Giving them weapons
- France saw the Americans as another friend who disliked the British
- July 10 1778 France delcares war on Britian as an aide to the Americans
- sent about 12 000 soldiers and 32 000 saliers
Netherlands and Spain in the American Revolution
- in 1779 they both declared war on the British
- want more control of the international trade and sea way. Since the biriths pretty have complete control both
- Want to break the influece that the british have.
- They both Contribute fincially to the americans
- Brant is the Mohawk leader. The mohawks are part of the Irquois confederacy.
- During the fighting Brant becomes a British Military officer
- Wnats to gain land for his people Intially the Iroquois Confedercy pled neutral to the Americans in 1775
- By the end of dec in 1776 Brant goes to N NY and asks the Iroquois to join the fight on the British side. since the British did not want to expand.
- The conferacy considers Brant a minor war chief and generally believes the Mohawks are a weak tribe.
- However, Brant is still able to lead some into war.
- Brant then leaves for London to get things from the British. When he returns he finds that 4 of the confedercy joined the war on teh British side and 2 groups joined the Americans
What are Brants Volunteers
- Natives that fought with Brant
- an irredgular army unit that is not recognized by the British and does not get paid. They get their money from plundering
- made up of Natives and British loyalists. About 1/5 is Natives and the rest are loyalsists. there is about 100 men
- Gorilla tyep of fighting and dress as American warriors with warrior paint.
- Most of the English background peopel transfer to either the Kings Royal regiment or to Butlers Regiment
- Brants army grows to 300 people with more Natives and they fight mainly in NY and Pennsylvania
- Lead by John Butler
- Provincal regiment and composed of loyalsits from NY state
- also consits of Black slaves which was usually forbiden
What is the kings Royal Regiment of NY
- raised by loyalists in Ny that had been exiled to Canad
- fled to Canada and created a core and then went mack to NY to fight the 13 colonies.
Battle of Yorkton
- dec 5, 1781
- french naval foces are able to defeat the British Royal navy at Cheasapeake
- war ends and negotiaons begin
- after the Yorktown battl the was still sporadic fighting bc communication sucked
- American believed that the war would draf on for another year but the defeat of Yorktown cause British PM to resign.
- the people after him decided that the war was not worth it.
End of The American war of Indepence
- April 1782 Brirtish parliment vote to end the war
- they pull their troops out
- Feb 1783 hostilities end and Britian claims the US are indepoendant
- peace treaties end with the Treaty of Paris
What is the Treaty of Paris
- Sept 3 1783
- american can expand westward
- Recognizes the soverignity of USA. But is bounded by Southern Florida, Mississippi River, and BNA
- Recongizes the boundries and gratns fishing rights to the USA of the coast NFLD and on the St. Lawerence River
- Each country was to pay for it's own war debts
- exchanged POW, property, and slaves
Why did France join the war? Was it to their bennifit?
- For revenge
- weaken British power-trading networks
- by helping the US, france thought they would be able to be future friends with the USA.
- France does not benifitt the Americans choose to keep trading relations with the British and so now France has no influece. All they get is trouble with money, and politics, and a bad economy
- different military groups that made up of loyalists. While they were fighting many people had there property taken away from them-since they lived in the states.
- In the states they are discrimnated against
- most move to Canada
- they had a lot of influence in Canada
- Plant Anti-American feelings in Canada. They don't like the idea of American gov't.
- All the immigration to Canada is a problem alhtough it is a new diversity Canada can not house, feed or job them all
Other minorties to Canada
- Many Germans from the USA move to Canada
- 2500 to Canada and they mainly got to NB and NS. THere they are given land grants.
- mennoites were passifts so the Americans saw them as being in the British side they move to Kitchner Ontario..attracking even more Germans to that area.
French Canadian during after the American War
- British hoped that the French Canadians would take arms up against the American but the French Canadians see this as an Anglo war.
- The french may not trust the English but they find that the Americans have nothing to offer them.
- When france entered the war the French Canadians feel pressure but they feel hope too that France will take them back
- When nothing happens at the end of the war the French Canadian's feel even more betrayed
- the French revolution divides french Canadian's from France as well because they think of ratical ideas like democracy.
- they begin to respect and admire the British more.
Who is John Graves Simcoe
- First leiutenant Governor of BNA
- for 1791-1796
- introduces law courts, trial by jury, and English common law
- Graduallly reduces slavery before the British Empire abolishes it
- tries not to cause problems with the americans but he has problems with the Northwest Indian war (1785-1795)
- Simcoe has good reltations with the Natives but at the same time he does not want to make teh USA mad
Northwest Indian War
- from 1785-1795)
- botht the USA and the Native want control of the Northwest territory
- Initially the British wanted a buffer state for the Natives in between the Canada's and the States.
- At first Canada does not help the Americans bc of a treayt but they ignore and give the antives blankets, and weapons
Who is Gerneral Benjamin Logan
- American Gerneal
- in 1786 he lead a groupd of Americans soldiers and milita against different Native communites in Ohio
- he burned down the Natives towns and killed and caputred the people
- Causing the Natives to retialiate even more
- is A british outpose that the Natives were using to recieve goods like ammunition and blankets from the Canadians.
- It's a fort on American territory build by the British and it defies the treaty Paris.
- The Natives are attacked by the American. As a result the Natives fall back to Fort Miami but they find that the gates are closed. The british did not want to start a war with the USA so they did no openly help the Natives.
Battle fo Fallen Timber
- took place Aug 1794
- there was a group of volunteer Canadian's fighting with the Natives
- they are defeated as a result the American's have more territory of Ohio and the Northwest territory.
Treaty of Greenville
- Ends the Northwest Indian wars
- signed 1795
- Different goos are given to the Natives in trade for the land
- The natives had to recgonize that the power in the area was American not British
- Establishes the Greenvilee treaty lines that work for a while. serperating Native territory and american territory and where the American's could expandand
- however, the Americans frequently crossed the boarder line.Causing tension between the two.
The Great French War
- between the British and French in 1792-1816
- years of almost continous fighting
- begins when France declares war against Austria
- following increased tension after the French revolution which introduced new ideas that went agains old ways
- Part of the great French war
- Napolean establishes an empire so there was a shift in allies and coalition against the french empire
- french power rises quickly and takes a lot of territory but after France invaded Russia the territories that France conquered start to crumble. and the power of the French empir is going to fade in 1812
- Napolean and his army is defeated by the chanplaign of Austria, Russia, Prussia,Sweden, the United Kingdom, and some of the German states (coalition was formed in 1813). the defeat Napolean and drive him exile April 1 1814
- a year later Napolean returns but is taken down at the battle of water loo June 1815.
- During this war GB's commitment is to Europe so many of the clonies do not recieve aide when they need it. In Canada this is the war of 1812.
War of 1812
- between britian and USA although most fighting is BNA
- it is a stupid pointless war
- declared by people who were not prepared and fought people who did not want to fight
- Relations between the UK and the USA are bad mostly bc of the Natives
- Also known as the second war of American Indepence
- when the Stats declare war they are not ready and GB is busy is Europe it is not until the French are ruined by Russia that Britian send troops to aide BNA.
Why does the war 1812 start?
- British Naval actions on the Atlantic- during the napolean wars there were Biritsh sailors that left the navy and some made there way to the American navy. the British do not feel betreayed but want the men back.The americna welcomed the sailors since they had training and were their nieghbours. British war shipswould frequently stop american ships and look for anyone they beileved to be a deserter and then take. But they did this on International waters which was illegal. they also took USA citizens since teh Briths could not really tell the difference.
- american desire to expand
- british blockaide in 1808-British bolck off the European coast so that France can't get any war materials. but it is done on international water. You could trade withe French if you stopped at a British trading post and showed them what you had. this hit the Americans hard.
- british are using impressments
- N americans want the british out of BNa so that they can expand and S Americans want Florida which belonged to Spain an ally of GB.
- election year and President Maddison is seen as vulnerable
- americans believed that the Biriths were trying to stop them from expanding and giving the Natives supplies.
- Nov 1811 there is a fight between the American's and Natives. A victory for the americans against Shawnee chief Tecumseh who was trying to organize groups of Natives to hold back american expansion
- Pushes president maddison to declare war June 18 1812
numbers in the 1812 war and the armies and the Navy
- tecumseh and his army ally with the Briitsh so numerically there was about 7.5 Americans and 1/2 million Canadians
- Trained Canadian soldiers were over in Europe
- the american army was volunteer and not very popular the American mitia was used as well but they are more home orientated and have no motivation to leave their home
- Americans that advocated the war thought that BNA would be taken easily and then it would just be "a mere matter of marching"
- hte Biritish and American Navy are invloved as well
- fighting on the great lakes was important but as neither side was prepared it is a race to see which side can make the most amount of ships
- the americans only had 22 ships and the British had 97.
- in BNA most ships are being built in Montreal and Kingston ON.
- If the Americans wanted to win they should have attacked both Kingston and montreal but they are scared of the Natives. since the Natives are mad bc the Americans always want to expand.
General george prevost and subordinat brock
- General was not very energetic or terrific in warfare
- brock was his complete opposite
- in the early phase of the war the British do well
- brick realiszes that the Natives are important to fighting and he diplomatically rensures them
Why are the Americans scared of the Natives
- Summer of 1812 the natives took three American forts.
- the Americans surrendered
- but this caused them to think that perhaps attacking would be a bad idea
- by Sept 1813 the Americans have crippled the British fleet on the great lakes. Causing supplies decrease to Canada. the british draw back
- the draw back pisses off tecumseh bc now some of his men have gone home and deserted the war tribe.
Niagra falls and the White house
- Dec 1813
- Americans under george McClure attack Niagra falls in turn the Canadians later attack the White house
- President James Maddision was forced to evacuate to Virgina.
- the White house was guarded by American militia but they have no motivation or training and flee before the capital was even attacked
- When the President fled it devestated the American morale.
Treaty of Ghent
- occures b/c the British suffer some defeats and decide they want to end the war.
- signed dec 1814
- restores conquered territory and establishes boarders
- the Great lakes were always an area that was disputed now they were divided between Canada and the states.
- the defeated natives were forced to sign a bunch of peace treaties that made them give the Americans more land to expand into
- Canada had wanted more territory before the war ended so that they had more levrage but that does not happen
- the british have to give up the idea of a buffer state
- the Americans gain international respect.
- in Upper Canada
- Gain control of the gov't through the exectuive council (cabnet appointed by the elites)
- they leave the elected assembly (the constitional act) with no power. the family has control over the land grants, education, relations with the church of england
- the people in the compact only appoint their friends and family to important postions
- Angilcan Bishop John Strachan has an important role.
The Chateau Clique
- in lower Canada
- well to famileis take advantae of the constitutional act. most of their power is deeply routed after the war of 1812
- most of the member of British merhcnats or trades men. however there are a few brainwashed french
- have to like the anglo church and love a monarch
- want to assimalte the French to British laws, language, and culture
- they also lead the exectuative assembly leaving them with no power.
- a group in lower Canada
- an informal opppostion lead by Louis Papienau
- want democracy and other policical changes
- 1834 the sent a list of demands to the British gov't known as the 92 resolutions. want the elective assembly to be chossen by the assembly and the legislative assembly to be elected
- the partiot implement a policy of non-co-operation with the clique, weaking the gov't in lower Canada
- 1837 GB tried to break the power of the patriot by issuing the 10 resloutions which were the opposite of what the patriot wanted
rejection of the 92 resolutions
- causes marches in 1837
- the british treid to repress them but that only made more angry
- nov 1837 a rebillon in lower Canada breaks out under Joseph Pap
- they are crushed
opposition in Upper Canada(against the family compact
- led by Mackenzie in 1837 but is stopped
- motivates the British gov't to send Lord Durham over to Canada to see what is wrong
who is William Lyon Mackenzie
- from 1824-1834 he publishes a pare known as the Colonial advocate.
- he was attacking the Family compact by putting out personal information about the memeber like how they were related and how much money they had
- in response in 1826 a mmob broke into his house and broke his equipment but that does not stop him he buys more stuff and continues
- a member of the elective assembly. was expelled 5 times and each time he was re-elected
- 1834 he became the mayor ot toronto giving him even more power to attack
- he founded a new paper promoting policital reform
- leads the fighting agaisn the family compact in upper Canada
Who is Lord Durham
- Gb britian sends him to BNA to see why everyone is rebillion
- writes a report in 1839 know as the report of Affair in BNA
- gernerally people in upper Canada like the report but those in lower Canada do not
- Althogu Durham recgonizes that there are legitmate problesm but he believes that the Anglophones are better.
- believed that the assimilation of French was their fate.
- If the Frenhc continued they may be put into a negativve social and economic status
What did the Report of Affiars in BNA include
- a modified gov't with elected people
- the unification of the 2 Canada's
- implemented in 1840.
- known as the second conquest of Quebec
- removed the tittles upper and lower Canada to East and West Canada
Why did Lord Durham want to combine the 2 Canada's in the report of Affiars in BNA
- believed that a single province would stimulate the economic economy and encourage and create prosperity for the area
- provides greater autonomy for the 2 privnces
- weaken the postion that the French haad
Why did the French not like the Uniteding of the two canada's
- merges upper and lowers Canada debt and lower Canada did not have debt but upper Canada did.
- Equal representation for each province. depneds on the population and since Quebec has more people they should have more representatives.
- fincial requerments makes it harder for the poor vote and generally the french were poorer.
- new legislation would decide on the laws that were implemented and b/c the majoirty were English the french feared many of thir laws and customs would be thrown out
- no reuqirment for the French language to be used after the first 15 years.
As a result of the unification what do the French do?
- Motivates the french to solidfy and protect their culture and language even more.
- leadership is assumed by the Catholic church.
- Conservative values begin to dominate
- more emphaiss in the old ways of life so the french live in urban area and the Anglo's in rural area.
- French believed that if they went to rural their culture would suffer.
- the catholic church become then a religion but a protector as well so the frenh would stay in urban area.
- the church teaches the French not to trust the anglophones and that gov't and institutions that were alien to french were bad
Who were Louis and Baldwin
- Known as the first two Prime ministers of Canada
- they show that the french and British can comprimes for the greater good of Canada
- they established a gov't in 1848 and they worked hard to restore the French language and to use the pricples of responsible gov't.
- Their gov't works fairly well they mostly do what the french want
- S Ontario remains mostly english and Quebec mostly French
Capitals in Canada and gov't
- the first capital was Kingston Ontario
- 1843 it moved to Montreal and after that it was moved between the Quebec city and Toronto both were capital for a year at a time.
- At the time of the Union Quebec had 65 000 peopel and Ontario had 45 000 but each got 42 members of assembly.
- Having equal numbers led to political dead lock
Britian wanted the Colonies to be more independant
- britian was the #1 country in industrial output and they believed free trade and the power of the navy\by the late 1840's everyone had free trade. which was bad for Canada bc the got less revenue
- Britian sees the colonies as expansive and on Nov 1846 the British secratary declared that the colonies would be run by the will of their own inhabitnats and the gg lost some if its power.
- Governor in 1847
- he wants to changes things implements the Rebillion losses bil in 1849.
- gave compenstation for those had property damage during the rebellion and were not considered traitors
- the only problem was that some traitors were compensated b/c they were not trialed. this is done in lower Canada only bc it has already been done in Upper Canada.
- a test of responsble gov't to see if the peopel would listen to what they said
- it went through April 1849 and some anglophones reacted in mob violence burning the montreal parliment but Elgin does nothing and eventually the radicals went away
Nova Scotia, PEI, and NFLD democracy
- reforms in NS came into power in 1847 advoacating public reform by 1848 NS had responsible gov't
- PEI had refomers in power in 1850 and by 1851 PEI had it's own reponsible govt.
- NFLD had responsible in 1855
Transportaion and Communication in BNA
- With the political changes BNA become more connected via railways and canals
- colonial services are more connected with postal service
- the electri telegram connected Hamilton, Toronto, and Montreal
- colonies are not as isolated and with more transportation there are more goods to flow,
- it's easier to export product nit just with in BAN but internationally as well
Grand Trunk Railway
- 1852 the govt wanted to build a railway to connect the important cities
- they ourchased the St Lawerence railway company and the Atlantic Railway company.
- it was the largest emplyer of its time
- however, it is over developed and not enough people use it so it has low revenue and collects debt by 1861
Staple theory- what was Canada's main eported staples
- by Harrold Innis
- Canada developed like andy other british colony strongly influnced by natural resources
- 1) Fish- first staple sent to Europe in the 1500's off of the grand Banks.
- 5) minning-minerals and precious metals
what is the problem with only exporting raw materials
- exploits the country
- everything is made outside of Canada and nothing is developed with in Canada
- But for GB as long as the materials go abroad and it's profitable they do not see the point in growing the colony
History of Fur as a staple
- second staple sent to Europe
- Natives had been using furs for a long time and they exchanged it European goods
- furs were valuable in Europe. Intially fur trade is small but due to large supplies and a change in demand for them they begin to boom
- 1580 the felt hat was the focus. they were worth $30,000. People would pass them along in their will.
- 1700 fur trade was accounting for 60% of Eurpes inports
- The natives traded 20 furs for 1 millet where as in Britian 1 fur was worth 20 millets.
- 1600-1760 there is French and English riverly in the fur trade. THe French intially go into the interior. by the 1600's the British are moving into the interior for fur.
- 1760-1821 there was aggressive competition betwn the Hudson bay company and the North west company. both go west continuing to expand
- 1821-1870 the 2 companies join toghter. they have a monopoly making it harder for the Natives
history of Lumber as a Canadian staple
- 3 staple sent to Europe
- it progresses slowly. Canada has large trees that are good for making ships. byt he 17th C, there was an organized lumber trade
- by the 1500 the British timber was depleted intially the Baltic are a convienant supply of timber for the British.
- The american revolution occured and the British had to get timber from Canada
- 1795 britian put a tarrif on Baltic wood, helping BNA
- timber is exported VIA St. Lawerence
- Timber peaks in 1814 (Napolean wars) after the ear GB is able to get timber from continental Europe and timber export in BNA declines
- it's exported until 1842 in Quebec there was number of timber camps empolying 100's men more people so more things to buy
- dominated by the British and once the forests were cleared it encouraged agriculture expansion.
History of Wheat as a Canadian staple
- farming is family orientated
- but as time goes on it becomes more industrial with machines
- canada becomes more urbanized
- there is migration from the country to the city
- 1840 wheat industry is larger but like Europe the working conditions are poor
- intially agriculture is given favorable treatment under corn laws by Britian. but that changes when BNA has to pay duties
- started in Great Britain in 1846
- Canada grain is no longer has special treatment so Canada has to look else where for buyers
- between 1848 to 1849 canada and the USA have a union
- they also have the Canadian American Reciprocity treaty
Whats with the Canadian American reciprocity treaty
- for 10 years starting 1855 (til1865)
- free trade of raw materials betwn Canada and the USA
- during the 10 years there was a boom in exports and increase in the Canadian economy
- In 1865 when the treaty is over the Americans do not want to resign the treaty.
some people that the increase in exports and the Canadian economy may not just be bc of the Canadian American reciprotory treaty they belive
- some say it was bc of the railways
- American civil war
- berfore the treaty a lot of supplies were being smuggled over the boarder
- Russian wheat supplies were cut off
- all of this helps the Canadian economy
Hudson Bay Company
- established May 1670
- With the Charter granting a monoply over trade
- control the fur trade through out most of BNA
- import labour from GB. for a 7-9 year contract
- resrtict the men from interacting with the Native women at first but then they see that it makes them happier and encourages it...but when the 7-9 years was over the men would just leave the ladies.
Northe West Company
- Hudson's bay rival
- begins with a combination of Scottish imigrants in upper Canada and French people
- travel deep in the interior to secure trading ties
- Fincial problems and political problems is what causes the 2 companies to combine
General slave info
- Natives who were caught and captured could be made into slaves and then they were considered private property (known as Pawnee)
- Nay child born was considered free
- Black people coming to Canada had been in Canada as long as any other European. They participated in the early voyages as a ship memeber or a slave
- slave trade was part of the European culture
- wanted permission from the Frenh crown to establish a slave trade with Afirca in 1688
- the permission was dinied, so direct imporation of black slaves is never done on a large scale.
- most of the slaves come from USA or othe French colonies in the Caribbean
- Majority are male 60%
- located in an urban center for the most part
- the slaves would work for on family but a family could have 1 or 2 slaves
Code Noir (AKA black code)
- defines the conditions of slavery within the colonial empire
- passed by the French kind Louis the 14th in 1685
- defined what a free clack person could do as well
- forbid the blacks from any religion other than Roman Catholic
- forbid all the jews from living in colonies
- slavery in New France is frimly estalbished but not on a large scale
- the church held a lot of slaves to help work the land
1689 Royal Mandate about slavery
- Given by King Louis the 14th.
- makes it possible for slaves to be listed as possessions in church records or any other ofical document
- slavery is given further legal recgonistion
- allowed to sell a slave in public papers
Who is Lord Dusmore
- british liutenant
- in an effort to weaken the Ameicans he invites the black people to leave America and fight against the
- promises them land in Canada, protection and a better way of life
- about 2000 listen and join him and the Ethopian Regiment in 1775.
blakc free people
- loyal to the British crown and come to Canada as freemen
- the usually come with families so they are domestic servants or farm hand or another skill
- treated just as bad as they were in the states
- slavery does not flouris in Canada as we do not need the labour
people who supported slavery
- be;ieved it was a necessary eveil sanctioned in the bible
- it was postive good theory
- Afircans would die w/out the protection and benevolent care of their master
- argue if you'd free them it would be a diasaster on the ecomony and the people would not know where to go
- scared that if they were free they would assimalted
- slave were not seen as a threat so much could read and write
John Graves Simcoe
- July 1793 he begins the gradually termination of slavery in Upper Canada before any other British colony. the goal is to abolish it completly
- slaves in the province would remian slaves unmtil death but no new slaves would be brought into Canada
- Children born to female salves would be free at 25 yrs.
Why did SImcoe decide to get rid of slavery
- march 1793
- an enslaved black women was thrown into a boat and forced to the states to be sold. she was beaten. she screamed until Peter Martin and William Griesle heard her
- martin was a former butlers soldiers and griesle was the neighbour
- Simcoe was horrified.
- oppistion did not want slavery to end right away which is why is brought in slowly.
GB and slavery
- William Osgoode, Cheif Justice of lower Canad ruled in 1803 that slavery was not compatiable w/ the BNA law
- some of the actions occur b/c of what is going in in GB
- black slaves were brought to the kingdom as personal slaves but they were not bought or sold just broughtin by rich people
- a servant that ran away named James Somerset forced legal decision by the British gov't
- owner Charles Steuart tried to force him to go to a sugar plant.
- Lord Mansfield was the judge and he says sending away a servan is OK
- however, in June Mansfield says slavery does not exost under British law and that James is freed
- 10-14 thousand slaves are freed
- leads a campaign to abolish slavery
- he did something that others wer not he talked to the women and children
- one project was to set up free land in Africa for freed slaves to go it was protected by the British gov't
- in 1807 British humanitarians are able to 'stop' the slave trade (not slavery) people could be fined 300 pound for a slave
- howeverm British ships that had slaves and were close to being caught would just throw the slaves over board so the slave trade did not end
- Evenutally in slavery is abolished through out the British Empire in 1833
Under ground railways
- blacks could come to Canada as refugees through a network of tunnes from USA to Canada
- enroute there safe houses where the blacks could stay
- started after 1800 but did not make to Canada unti 1830-1840
Governor James Douglas
- leader of a black community
- encourages black migration from the statesb/c Douglas did not like the USA. If the blacks went to Vancouver Island, then the American's would not annex it b/c they did not like the blacks
- they are given favorable terms but are still discriminated agasint
- some people both white and black come mostly from american and kidnap the black people to take them back to the USA so that they can becom slaves again
- Northen Americans were sympatheic to the slaves, and the railways, Sout America was not..they tried to push for slavery laws
Fugitive Slave Bill
- 1850 congress passes it
- prevents a salve from going to a state that does not allow slavery forcing them to go Canada
- Any slave owner can form a group and was allowed to use force to recapture the slave. American court and police were obligated to help
- A provate citxen was obligated to help or he could be fined, jailed, or have to pay the owner resitition fee
- estimate that 50-80 thousand blacks came to Canada but in 1851 stats say that there was 400 black people in Cnaada and in 1861 there was only 11,200.
- Some may have been discriminated against so they did not want to be a citizen
- many died on their way here
- depending how white they were some tried to pass as a white person
- they feared that the authortiies would send them back to the states
L'anse aux meadow
- northen tipo of NFLD where the vikings landed
- fisheries were important in the development of the oceanic trade
- first place that the European's go but the last place that is settled.
- claimed for England by John Cabot in 1497. but they do not anything with the land so it does not mean much
- at the time England was weak and the Bavy was not developed, nor are the commiercial activies
settlement of NFLD
- fishermen go to NFLD to fish every summer since the 1500's
- including the French, ENglish, and Portugesse the French and ports out numbered the English
- the fighting in Europe at the time leaks to NFLD and then there was riverlies between the fisherman but never on NFLD just the coast
- no one country has control of the entire island-only catasorphy
- proeblems are withing countries own fleets and between country fleets..all wanted the limited resources the island had
- there was a code of conduct put in but no gov't recognizes it
- the English began to beleve that if their men could stay the winter then they would have control of the island and the fisheries
Value of NFLD
at first it was valued for the fish only and no one ever had to occupy the land
- 1000 men from different countries are there temporarily and decide that they should start a company
- established by british merchants from Bistol in Londan in 1610
- aim was to make fisheries more profitable-set up a community
- get a royal charter and the company is given a whole charter to watch their activity but it focuses on the small part of the area
- Guy is fighitng about his pay causing him leave and he takes some of the investors with him
- they set up a new colony in 1615 which lasted until 1631
- John Mason replaces Guy but he is not as attentive and the company goes down
- 1602 he was commisioned to take 3 British war ships to NFLD
- a member of the british navy and was to force peace amoung the fisherman.
- during this time England is at war with Spain. A new monarch is placed on the thrown and a year later the war is over, the Navy is downsized to save costs.
- Easton and his men are abandoned in NFLD and no longer being paid
- in 1613 he is a piract and creates havic on the NFLD coast,Avalon Pennisula asking for protection money from them, which they pay with their limited supply of live stock.
- he gives britian an ultimadium either they pardon him and he leaved NFLD alone or he continues to create disharmony.
- he is given the pardon but is never told 2 years later he leaves and settles down in France
- wanted to start farming but NFLD is a rock so nothing really grows other then regular gardensbc of bad soil and weather conditions many can't get enough food for themselves or for livestock
- Under the leadership of John Guy, British merchant
- first area that is inhabited full time by Europeans in 1610
- in 1612 they brought in women thinking that they would make the men happier and produce babies
- free from ice so you could fish earlier and stay out longer during the summer time
In the early days there 2 types of colonies
- 1)Charter Company
- kind of buisness adventure by a group of investors
- has a gov't charter and is influenced by the gov't
- 2) Proprietor Company
- Launch by indivuals and owned by a proprietor
- govt had not influence
- was influenced more by trade in NFLD fisheries
Division of NFLD Costal area
- After British & Spain are done fighting in 1604 they both turn to colonization and trade
- the interior of NFLD still does not require division but the coast does
- in 1620 the coast was divided. each nation confined it's fisherman to one part of the coast.the english took the Old English shore, part of the Avalon Pensula. french took the coast nera Bonavista
- slow expansion
- other European countries fish where it is that they can find a spot.
- they English wanted to mine but it doesn't work Everyone is competing for the limited resources on the land
- unti 1669 the French claim soverignty to NFLD but then they are attacked by Spain.
- Placentia was established in 1665, to provide revenue for France, it intially does well but it's raided by the British which prevents it from flourishing but the French were still able to compete with the ENglish
- everyone liked it because of it's fishing season and the convience
- the French put trained soldiers to make it like a Garson which is why they are able to hold their own
- in 1665 the French are able to revive Placentia bc the Englsih were busy in Europe from 1660-1670
- English merchants invest less money or go bankrupt causing the English to go into decline.
- English debate ending their settlemnt in NFLD but change thier mind. They are not sure what to do with island though
- from 1680 to 1700 there was no British policy and no formal gov't influence
NFLD and the French Idian wars
- negative on effect
- in 1713 the treaty of Utrecht (End of Queen Anne's war) makes France give up Placentia to ENgland
- NFLD had to admit English rule on the Island but the French were still allowed to fish on coast
- after the Treaty the English need men to go to NFLD:
- People that know about fishing, lived that kind of lifestyle, Bring their customs and dialect
Communication on NFLD and different harbours
- Over the water b/c the interior is still not settled
- Each harbour had it;s own commercial center independant of other harbours
- importing and exporting goods from their harbour directly to the one in UK
- different harbours grow indelpendatly so there is no real sense of community until St. Johns comes alongs
- During the 7 yrs war Englsih fisherman learn of other rich fishing groungs
- need more labout and man power. The British gov't has to allow more people in and they have to introduce better gov't in NFLD
- the setllers get along better now Halifax is founded in 1749
- suppose to be a Naval strong hold similar to Louis berg
- july 1749 ships carrying 2,576 men founded Halifac
- they needed labour people who knew about construction and were not scared of physical labour but they do not get these people instead they get city slackers
- they promise free land and tool, and supplies to last them for the year
Pallisers Act of 1775
- Encourages permant settlemnt in NFLD
- ends hostility in NFLD
- Americnas are NLFd competor after they are independant so all trades with the Americans is switched to the Canada's
- native inhabitants of NFLD. when the Europeans first arrive there was probably only about 500 of them bc of the infertile soil and the harsh climate.
- lived in groups of about 30-50.
- did not want contact with outsiders so when the Europeans set up fisheries on the coast the tribe moves inland
- they do get european goods though when they leave their shacks with tools for the winter
- did not along with the Europeans at al most contacts ended with violence and fighitng. they were both fighting over the natural resources of the land.
- Europeans were not very genorus or cooperative they were mean to the Beothuks and they were very revengful people.
- there were many different pointless fights that ending with the Beothuks dying.
Red Indian Lake
- in 1768 the British wanted to make up with the Beothuk tribe and send a party out but they were not able to find them
- in 1811 a second party was sent out and they found the tribe at Red indian lake
- intially it was good and the the British leader left 2 men with the Natives for the night, when he returned he found them mutilated and dead.
- however, the English did not try to get revenge.
- but they did not how hard it was to find the tribe and how little of them were left probably due to violence and dieses.
- in 1819 the governor encouraged trade and wanted to end hostilties with the beothuk tribe
- the meeting ends to fighting and the British capture a Beothuk women
- they want her to be an interpretor and help them understand the Beothuk culture. then they could have better relations
- she learns Englsih and does provide them with some vocab
- dies Jan 1820
- capture April 1823 by the British
- beleived she was the last Beothuk know
- works as a servant
- some British were trying to find the beothuk but all they could find was artifacts
- tge British conclude the tribe is dying out or already exctinct execpt for Nancy
- she provided srawings of the Beothuk culture and info on diff stories on the numerical decline
- past 2 decades they had been decreasing and when she was captured there was only 10 -12 people left
- dies June 1829