Ch 7 Westmont Psych

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Ch 7 Westmont Psych
2011-10-24 21:26:37
fikes westmont psych psychology memory attention

ch 7 psych attention and memory
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  1. Memory
    the nervous system's capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge
  2. Parallel Processing
    processing information from different visual features at the same time by focusing on targets and blacking out distractors
  3. Cocktail Party Phenomenon
    We can focus on one conversation in the midst of chaos, but a trigger stimulus (i.e. hearing your name) will cause us to switch focus
  4. Filter Theory
    we have a limited capacity for sensory info, so we only let in the most important
  5. Change blindness
    common failure to notice large changes in our environment
  6. Encoding
    processing of info to be stored
  7. Storage
    the retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers that event
  8. Retrieval
    The act of recalling or remembering stored info to use it
  9. Modal Memory Model
    three stage memory system: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
  10. Sensory Memory
    • sensory info that is stored briefly and close to its original sensory form
    • (fraction of a second)
  11. Short-Term Memory
    limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period
  12. Working Memory
    active processing system that keeps different types of info available for current use
  13. Chunking
    organizing information into meaningful blocks to make it easier to remember
  14. Central Executive
    encodes info from sensory system and filters info that is important to be stored in long term memory
  15. Phonological Loop
    encodes auditory info and is active when people try to remember words; "inner voice"
  16. Visualspatial Sketchpad
    processes objects' features and location
  17. Episodic Buffer
    holds temporary information about oneself
  18. Long-Term Memory
    the relatively permanent storage of information
  19. Serial Position Effect
    More likely to remember the first and last items on a list
  20. Implicit Memory
    system underlying unconscious motives
  21. Explicit Memory
    remembering specific information
  22. Declarative Memory
    knowledge that can be declared
  23. Episodic Memory
    memory for one's personal past experiences
  24. Semantic Memory
    Memory for knowledge about the world
  25. Procedural Memory
    implicit memory involving motor skills and behavioral habits
  26. Prospective Memory
    remembering to do something at some time in the future
  27. Maintenance Rehearsal
    repeating an item over and over
  28. Elaborative Rehearsal
    thinking about an item conceptually or tying it to oneself
  29. Schema
    hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use information
  30. Retrieval Cue
    anything that helps a person recall information from memory
  31. encoding specificity principle
    any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for that experience
  32. Engram
    Karl Lashley's idea of the physical site of memory storage
  33. Consolidation
    a hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate into long-term memory
  34. Reconsolidation
    neural processes involved when memories are recalled and then stored again for later retrieval
  35. Spatial Memory
    memory for the physical environment; location of objects, direction, etc.
  36. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    nightmares, instrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to earlier trauma
  37. Transcience
    forgetting over time
  38. proactive interference
    prior info inhibits the ability to remember new info
  39. retroactive interference
    new info inhibits the ability to remember old info
  40. blocking
    the temporary intability to remember something that is known
  41. absentmindedness
    inattentive or shallow encoding of events
  42. amnesia
    deficits in long-term memory that result from a disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma
  43. Retrograde Amnesia
    Condition in which people lose past memories; i.e. people, facts, events, etc
  44. Anterograde Amnesia
    Inability to form new memories
  45. Flashbulb memories
    vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, emotionally arousing event
  46. Source Misattribution
    memory distortion that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with one memory
  47. Crytpomnesia
    type of misattribution that occurs when one thinks he or she has come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea
  48. Suggestibility
    development of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information
  49. Source Amnesia
    showing memory for an event but cannot remember where you encountered the information
  50. Confabulation
    false recollection of episodic memory
  51. Memory bias
    the changing of memories over time in ways consistent with prior beliefs
  52. Mnemonics
    strategies for improving memory