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  1. List the largest and smallest muscles in the body:
    • Largest: gluteus maximus
    • Smallest: stapedius
  2. How many total muscles of the body are there?
  3. List three thing in which muscles consume:
    • Nutrients
    • ATP
    • O2
  4. List the fxns of muscles
    • Movement
    • Convert ATP to mechanical energy
    • Maintain posture
    • Tension on joints
    • Stability
    • Anti-gravity
    • Control openings
    • Heat production
  5. List and describe the characteristics of muscles:
    • Responsiveness- exciteability
    • Cell membrane capable of dramatic electrical charge
    • Conductivity - spreads thru muscle fibers
    • Contractibility- shortens when stimulated
    • Extensibility- stretch
    • Elasticity- recoils when tension released
  6. Which of the following is not a fxn of muscles
    A. Convert ATP to mechanical energy to creat movement
    B. Heat production
    C. Maintain posture
    D. Regulate hormone control
    E. Counteract gravity
  7. Which of the following is NOT a major characteristic of muscles?
    A. Stretchable and elastic
    B. Conductive
    C. Pushes to create skeletal movements
    D. Excitable: cell membrane capable of electrical charge
  8. The attachment site of the muscles at the stationary point is called:
    The origin
  9. The muscle attachment site of the end that moves, or allows motion is called:
    The insertion
  10. The middle of the muscle is know as:
    the belly
  11. The movement that muscles produce is called:
  12. List the three major muscle types:
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  13. True/False: Each type of force generated is unique to each muscle types.
    False- all pull, all contract
  14. True/False: muscles are independent systems that fxn independently to create movements.
  15. The muscle that produces the greatest amount of force is called the _____ and the ____ does most of the work.
    • Prime mover
    • Agonist
  16. The muscle that assists the prime mover is called:
  17. The muscle that opposes the prime mover is called the:
  18. The muscle that holds the bone in place, and prevents it from moving too far in one direction is called the:
  19. Define tendons and give a description:
    • Definition: connects muscle to bone
    • Description: dense regular tissue, strong, compact
  20. Define aponeurosis and give an example:
    • A broad tendon sheet, spreads out
    • Example: exipalmer anponeurosis
  21. Define rentiaculum and give an example:
    • Connective tissue that covers tissues, adds stability, helps stay in place, "little bracelet"
    • Example: exiflexor rentiaculum
  22. List the criteria for naming muscles:
    • A. Fiber direction - oblique, transverse, rectus
    • B. Location - anterior/posterior
    • C. Action- extensor
    • D. Shape/size- longus, Magnus, brevis, orbit
    • E. # of heads- bi, tri, quad
    • F. Points of attachments
  23. Define the following terms of fiber direction and gave an example: oblique, transverse, rectus
    • Oblique: fibers run at an angle Example: internal/external obliques
    • Transverse: fibers run horizontal, or across. Example: transverse abs
    • Rectus: fibers run vertically, or up and down. Example: rectus Abs
  24. List the layers of fibers from superficial or deep:
    • Obliques
    • Transverse
    • Rectus
  25. Give two examples of muscles that are named based on it's action:
    • Extensor digitorum - the muscle that goes to 4 digits
    • Extensor digitorum minimus - moves just the 5th digit
  26. List some examples of muscles that are named based on shape:
    • Deltoid: is named for the Greek letter delta, which looks like a triangle
    • Trapezious: shape of a trapezoid
    • Orbitocularis: orbit-"around"
  27. List some examples of muscles that are named based on size:
    • Adductor longs - longest of the adductor muscles
    • Adductor mangus - largest of the adductor muscles
  28. List some examples of muscles named based on the # of heads it has at it's origin:
    • Biceps brachii - 2 heads
    • Quadriceps femoris - 4 heads
  29. Name a muscle that is named based on it's points of attachment:
    Sternocleomastoid - sternum, clavicle, insertion on the mastoid process
  30. List the 3 muscles that elevate the mandible:
    • Temporalis - area of the temporal bone
    • Masseter - mastication of food
    • Medial ptergoid - crosses over the mandible from the maxilla area
  31. List 3 muscles that depress mandible:
    • Lateral ptergoid
    • Digastric
    • Hyoids - suprahyoid/infrahyoid
  32. List the muscle that depresses the scapula:
    Inferior Trapezious
  33. List the muscle that elevates he scapula:
    • Superior Trapezious
    • Leveator scapulae
    • Rhomdoideous major and minor
  34. List the muscles that retract the scapula:
    • Rambodiods major/minor
    • Trapezious major/minor
  35. List the muscles that protract the scapula:
    • Serratus anterior
    • Pectoralis major
  36. List the Muscle that rotates the rotator cuff medially:
  37. List the muscles that rotate the rotator cuff laterally:
    • Teres minor
    • Infraspinotois- below the spine of the clavicle
    • Supraspinatois - above the line of the clavicle
  38. List the muscles that flex the arm/shoulder:
    List the insertion point:
    • Deltoid
    • Pectoralis major
    • Coracobrachialis - interior muscle, medial to the humerus
    • Insertion: humerus
  39. List the muscles that extend the arm/shoulder:
    List the insertion point:
    • Deltoid
    • Teres major
    • Latissimus Dorsi
    • Insertion: humerus
  40. List the muscles that flex the forearm:
    • Brachilais
    • Biceps brachii
    • Brachiradialis
  41. List the muscles that extend the forearm:
    Triceps brachii
  42. List the muscles that flex the wrist/fingers:
    • Flexor carpi radialis
    • Flexor carpi ulnaris
    • Palmaris lomgus
  43. List the muscles that extend the wrist/fingers:
    • Extensor carpi radialis
    • Extensor carpi ulnaris
  44. List the muscles that adduct the thigh: list the origin:
    • Pectineus- highest one, means pectin or protein
    • Adductor magnus
    • Adductor bervis
    • Adductor longus
    • Gracillis
    • Origin: the hip
  45. List the muscles that abduct the thigh:
    List the origin:
    Act on:
    • Gluteus maximus
    • Gluteus medius
    • Gluteus minimus
    • Piriformis
    • Gemellis
    • Origin: hip
    • Act on: femur
  46. List the muscles that flex the knee:
    The name of the group:
    • Biceps femoris
    • Semitendonsis
    • Semimembraneous
    • Popiteal fossa
    • Group: hamstrings
  47. List the muscles that extend the knee:
    Name the group:
    • Rector femoris
    • Vastus lateralis
    • Vastus medialis
    • Bastia intermedalis
    • Name: quadriceps
    • Location: anterior
    • Insert: tibia
  48. List the muscles that dorisflex the foot:
    • Tibialis anterior
    • Extensor digitorum longus
  49. List the muscles that plantarflex the foot:
    • Flexor digitorum longus
    • Gastronomium
    • Soleus
    • Fibularis longus
    • Fibularis brevis
  50. Put the following structures in order from deep to superficial: endomysium, epimysium, perimysium, fascia.

    Describe each layer
    • Endomysium: Loose connective tissue, surrounds each muscle fiber
    • Perimysium: Thick connective tissue, bundles muscle fibers together into fascicles
    • Epimysium: surrounds the entire group of muscles with fiberous connective tissues
    • Fascia: separates neighboring muscles or muslce groups from each other
  51. Individual skeletal muscle fibers are surrounded by a connective tissue layer called the

    A) perimysium.
    B) deep fascia.
    C) endomysium.
    D) epimysium.
    E) deep perimysium.
  52. Which of the following terms is used to describe a broad, sheet-like tendon?

    A) endomysial sheet
    B) retinaculum
    C) aponeurosis
    D) superficial fascia
  53. A tendon is a continuation of collagen fibers of the ________________.

    A) endomysium
    B) epimysium
    C) perimysium
  54. Paralysis of which of the following would result in your often biting the inside of your cheek?

    A) buccinator muscle
    B) masseter muscle
    C) orbicularis oris muscle
    D) medial pterygoid muscle
  55. Which muscle is used to open the mouth quickly to spit out something that is burning your tongue?

    A) digastric muscle
    B) temporalis muscle
    C) genioglossus muscle
    D) omohyoid muscle
  56. Which of the following muscles is a flexor of the neck?

    A) splenius capitis
    B) trapezius
    C) sternocleidomastoid
    D) semispinalis capitis
  57. The four major muscles of mastication insert on what structure?

    A) the hyoid bone
    B) the mandible
    C) the tongue
    D) the sphenoid bone
    E) the soft palate
  58. A surgeon making an incision exactly in the midline of the abdomen would be cutting through

    A) the rectus abdominis muscle.
    B) the inguinal ligament.
    C) the transversus abdominis muscle.
    D) the internal oblique muscle.
    E) the linea alba.
  59. The diamond-shaped region that is located between the thighs is called the

    A) perineum.
    B) popliteal space.
    C) urogenital diaphragm.
    D) cubital fossa.
    E) femoral triangle.
  60. Removal of which of the following may be necessary to relieve symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome?

    A) iliotibial band
    B) extensor retinaculum
    C) flexor retinaculum
    D) palmar aponeurosis
  61. Which of the following muscles is not attached to the scapula?

    A) pectoralis minor
    B) biceps femoris
    C) serratus anterior
    D) rhomboideus
  62. All of the following are rotator cuff muscles except the

    A) supraspinatus muscle.
    B) infraspinatus muscle.
    C) subscapularis muscle.
    D) trapezius muscle.
  63. This muscle assists in both flexion of the hip and extension of the knee.

    A) the iliopsoas
    B) the vastus medialis
    C) the rectus femoris
    D) the quadratus femoris
    E) the sartorius
  64. The muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh are mainly responsible for

    A) hip flexion.
    B) lateral rotation of the thigh.
    C) knee extension.
    D) adduction of the femur.
  65. All of the following are considered "hamstring" muscles except the

    A) semimembranosus.
    B) biceps femoris.
    C) rectus femoris.
    D) semitendinosus.
  66. Which of the following muscles inserts onto the calcaneus?

    A) soleus
    B) tibialis posterior
    C) peroneus longus
    D) popliteus
  67. List the structure of skeletal muscle from gross to microscopic levels:
    • Fascicle: bundles of muscle fibers, visible to the naked eye as paralle strands (grain in meat)
    • Myofibers: ( muscle fibers)
    • Myofibrils: arragned in sacromeres
    • Myofilaments: bundle of paralle protein microfilaments (thick/thin)
    • Myosin/actin molecules: myosin - shaped like a golf club head, with shaftlike tail actin- shaped like a bead necklace
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