Cell bio ch 5

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Cell bio ch 5
2011-10-27 01:01:38
Cell bio Ch5

Cell bio ch 5
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  1. What was the early earth populated by?
  2. What are anaerobes?
    organisms that captured and utilized energy by means of oxygen-independant metabolism.
  3. What are examples of oxygen-independant metabolism.
    glycolysis and fermentation
  4. What evolved from anaerobes and why?
    Aerobes, to use energy more efficiently and can extract more energy from organic molecules
  5. In eukaryotes aerobic respiration takes place in the...
  6. what are the two mitochondria membranes and what do they do?
    –Outer membrane serves as the outer boundary
  7. –Inner membrane is subdivided into two domains:
  8. •Inner boundary membrane
    • •Cristae
    • –Where the machinery for ATP is located
  9. What is cristae?
    • •Cristae
    • –Where the machinery for ATP is located
  10. what two spaces do the inner and outter mitochondria membranes enclose?
    matrix and intermembrane space
  11. Mitochondria Outer membrane contains a large pore-forming protein called...
  12. Mitochondrial Outer membrane is about ___% protein; inner membrane is more than ___% protein.

    A. 25%; 30%
    B. 50%;75%
    C. 75%;50%
    D. 50%;50%
    B. 50%;75%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Mitochondrial Inner membrane contains cardiolipin but not cholesterol

    A. Cardiolipin, Cholesterol
    B. Cholesterol, Chloroplast
    C. Protein, Histones
    D. Nonhistones, Histones
    A. Cardiolipin, Cholesterol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  14. T or F
    Mitochondrial Inner membrane is impermeable to even small molecules; outer membrane is permeable to even some proteins
  15. Mitochondrial matrix contains? (3)
    a circular DNA molecule, ribosomes, and enzymes
  16. What can be synthesized in the mitochondrial matrix? (2)
    RNA and proteins can be synthesized in the matrix
  17. What does glycolysis produce? (3)
    Pyruvate, NADH, and 2-ATP
  18. After glycolysis, ______ can use O2 to extract more than 30 additional ATPs from pyruvate and NADH
    aerobic organisms
  19. _____ is transported into the mitochondrion and decarboxylated to form acetyl CoA, which enters the next stage
  20. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is where substrate is _______ and its energy _____.
    oxidized; conserved
  21. (TCA)
    –Two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA is ________ with the four-carbon oxaloacetate to form a six-carbon citrate
  22. (TCA)
    –During the cycle, two carbons are ______ to CO2, regenerating the four-carbon oxaloacetate needed to continue the cycle
  23. (TCA)
    ______ reactions in the cycle transfer a pair of electrons to NAD+ to form NADH, or to FAD+ to form FADH2

    A. 5
    B. 4
    C. 2
    D. 3
    B. 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  24. Reduced coenzymes _____ and _____are the primary products of TCA
    FADH2 , NADH
  25. _____ formed during ______ enters the mitochondria via malate-aspartate or glycerol phosphate
    NADH, glycolysis
  26. As electrons move through the electron-transport chain, ______ are pumped out across the inner membrane
  27. (ETC)
    _____is formed by the controlled movement of H+ back across the membrane through the ATP-synthesizing enzyme.
  28. (ETC)
    –The coupling of H+ translocation to ATP synthesis is called _________.
  29. Strong oxidizing agents have a ____ affinity for electrons; strong reducing agents have a ____ affinity for electrons
    high, weak
  30. Electrons associated with either NADH or FADH2 are transferred through specific electron carriers that make up the ________.
    Electron Transport chain
  31. (Electron carrier)
    Polypeptides bound to either FAD or FMN are called...
  32. (Electron carrier)
    An electron carrier that contains heme groups bearing Fe or Cu metal ions are called...
  33. (Electron carrier)
    lipid-soluble molecule made of five-carbon isoprenoid units
    Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q)
  34. An Electron carrier that contains Fe in association with inorganic sulfur
    Iron-sulfur proteins
  35. How many electron transport complexes are there?
    A. 2
    B. 3
    C. 4
    D. 5
    C. 4
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  36. Sequence the Electron Transport Chain:

    and what each step will catalyze
    I, III, II, IV

    • I: catalyzes NADH to ubiquinone
    • III: ubiquinone to cytochrome
    • II: succinate to FAD to ubiquinone
    • IV: electrons to O2 and transports H+ across the membrane