terminology quiz ch 10 and 13

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  1. articulation
    place of uion between two or more bones; aka joint
  2. cancellous
    spongy or porous structure, as found at the ends of long bones
  3. cruciate ligaments
    • ligaments that cross each other forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
    • help secure and stabilize the knee
  4. hematopoisis
    production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
  5. rotation
    moves a bone around its axis
  6. pronation
    turns the palm down
  7. supination
    turns the palm up
  8. inversion
    moves the sole of the foot inward
  9. eversion
    moves the sole of the foot outward
  10. dorsiflexion
    elevates the foot
  11. plantar flexion
    lowers the foot (points the toes)
  12. trochanter
    • very large, irregularly shaped process found only on the femur
    • nonarticulating surface
  13. sites of muscle and ligament attachment
    tubercle and tuberosity
  14. tubercle
    small, rounded process
  15. tuberosity
    large, rounded process
  16. projections that form joints
    condyle and head
  17. condyle
    rounded, articulating knob
  18. head
    prominent, rounded, articulating end of a bone
  19. sites for blood vessel, nerve and duct passage
    foramen, fissure, meatus, sinus
  20. foramen
    • rounded opening through nerves and a bone to accomodate blood vessels
    • foramen of the skull through which cranial nerves pass
  21. fissure
    • narrow, slitlike opening
    • fissure of sphenoid bone
  22. meatus
    • opening or passage into a bone
    • external auditory meatus of the temporal bone
  23. sinus
    • cavity or hollow space in a bone
    • cavity of the frontal sinus containing a duct that carries secretions to the upper part of the nasal cavity
  24. connection between musculoskeletal system and blood, lymph, and immune
    • muscle action pumps lymph through lymph vessels
    • bone marrow provides a place for cells of the immune system to develop
  25. connection between musculoskeletal system and cardiovascular system
    bone helps regulate blood calcium levels, important for heart function
  26. connection between musculoskeletal system and digestive system
    • muscles plan an important role in swallowing and propelling food through the digestive tract
    • muscles of the stomach mechanically break down food to prepare it for chemical digestion
  27. connection between musculoskeltal system and endocrine system
    exercising skeletal muscles stimulates release of hormones to increase blood flow
  28. connection between musculoskeletal system and female reproductive system
    • skeletal muscles are important in sexual activity and during delivery of the fetus
    • bones provide a source of calcium during pregnancy and lactation if dietary intake is lacking or insufficient
    • pelvis helps support the enlarged uterus during pregnancy
  29. connection between musculoskeletal system and genitourinary system
    • skeletal muscles are important in sexual activity
    • bones work in conjunction with the kidneys to help regulate blood calcium levels
    • skeletal muscles help control urine elimination
  30. connection between musculoskeletal system and integumentary system
    involuntary muscle contractions (shivering) help regulate body temp
  31. connection between musculoskeletal system and nervous system
    bones protect the brain and spinal cord
  32. connection between musculoskeltal system and respiratory system
    muscles and ribs work together in breathing process
  33. ankyl/o
    stiffness; bent, crooked
  34. arthr/o
  35. kyph/o
  36. lamin/o
    lamina (part of vertebral arch)
  37. lord/o
    curve, swayback
  38. myel/o
    bone marrow; spinal cord
  39. orth/o
  40. ped/o
    foot; child
  41. scoli/o
    crooked, bent
  42. ankylosis
    • abnormal condition of stiffness
    • results in immobility and stiffness of a joint. result of trauma, surgery, or disease (rhematoid arthritis)
  43. kyphosis
    abnormal condition of a humpback posture
  44. laminectomy
    • excision of the lamina
    • usually performed to relieve compression of the spinal cord or to remove a lesion or herniated disk
  45. lordosis
    abnormal condition of a swayback posture
  46. myelocyte
    bone marrow cell
  47. orthopedist
    specialist in treatment of musculoskeletal disorders
  48. osteoma
    tumor composed of bone
  49. pedograph
    • instrument for recording the foot
    • records an imprint of the foot on paper and gait
  50. pedicure
    care of feet
  51. scoliosis
    abnormal bending of the spine
  52. thoracodynia
    pain in the chest
  53. acromi/o
    acromion (projection of scapula)
  54. brahi/o
  55. calcane/o
    calcaneum (heel bone)
  56. carp/o
    carpus (wrist bone)
  57. cephal/o
  58. cervic/o
    neck; cervix of uteri
  59. clavicul/o
    clavicle (collar bone)
  60. cost/o
  61. crani/o
    cranium (skull)
  62. dactyl/o
    fingers; toes
  63. femor/o
    femur (thigh bone)
  64. fibul/o
    fibula (smaller bone of lower leg)
  65. humer/o
    humerus (upper arm bone)
  66. ili/o
    ilium (lateral, flaring portion of hip bone)
  67. ischi/o
    ischium (lower portion of hip bone)
  68. brachialgia
    pain in the arm
  69. calcaneodynia
    pain in the heel
  70. carpoptosis
    wrist drop
  71. cephalad
    toward the head
  72. cervicodynia
    pain in the neck; aka cervical neuralgia
  73. costectormy
    excision of a rib
  74. craniotomy
    incision of the cranium
  75. dactylitis
    inflammation of fingers or toes
  76. fibulocalcaneal
    pertaining to the fibula and calcaneus
  77. calcane
    calcaneum (heel bone)
  78. humeroscapular
    relating to the humerus and scapula
  79. iliopelvic
    pertaining to the iliac area of the pelvis
  80. ischiodynia
    pain in the ischium
  81. lumb/o
    loins (lower back)
  82. metacarp/o
    hand bones
  83. metatars/o
    foot bones
  84. patell/o
  85. pub/o
    pelvis bone
  86. radi/o
    radius (lower arm bone); radiation
  87. spondyl/o
    vertebrae (backbone)
  88. stern/o
    sternum (breast bone)
  89. lymbodynia
    • pain in lumbar region of back
    • aka lumbago
  90. metacarpectomy
    excision of the metacarpal bones
  91. metatarsalgia
    pain in the metatarsus
  92. patellectomy
    removal of the patella
  93. pelvimetry
    • actof measuring the pelvis
    • for obstetricial management
  94. phalangectomy
    excision of the phalanges
  95. pubococcygeal
    pertaining to the pubis and the coccyx
  96. spondylitis
    inflammation of the vertebrae
  97. sternad
    toward the sternum
  98. tibi/o
    tibia (larger bone of lower leg)
  99. leimy/o
    smooth muscle (visceral)
  100. rhabd/o
    • rod shaped
    • striated
  101. rhabdomy/o
    rod-shaped (striated) muscle
  102. chondro/o
  103. fasci/o
    bnad, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscles)
  104. fibr/o
    fiber, fibrous tissue
  105. synov/o
    synovial membrane, synovial fluid
  106. asthenia
    weakness, debility
  107. tibiofemoral
    pertaining to the tibia and femur
  108. leimomyoma
    tumor of the smooth muscle
  109. myoma
    tumor of muscle
  110. rhabdoid
    resembling a rod
  111. rhabdomyoma
    tumor composed of striated muscular tissue
  112. fascioplasty
    surgical repair of fascia
  113. fibroma
    tumor of fibrous tissue
  114. synovectomy
    removal of a synovial membrane
  115. tenodesis
    surgical binding or fixation of a tendon
  116. -desis
    binding, fixation fo a bone or joint
  117. -blast
    embryonic cell
  118. -clasia
    to break; surgical fracture
  119. -clast
    to break
  120. -physis
  121. -porosis
  122. -scopy
    visual examination
  123. myoblast
    embryonic cell that develops into muscle
  124. osteoclasia
    surgical fracture of a bone
  125. osteoclast
    cell that breaks down bone
  126. arthrodesis
    binding together of a joint
  127. epiphysis
    growth upon end of a long bone
  128. osteoporosis
    porous bone
  129. arthroscopy
    visual examination of a joint
  130. atrophy
    without nourishment
  131. supracostal
    pertaining to above the ribs
  132. syndactylism
    condition of joined fingers or toes
  133. carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS)
    painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the corpal tunnel
  134. claudication
    lameness, limping
  135. contracture
    fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
  136. crepitation
    dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together indicating a fracture or joint destruction
  137. electromyography
    use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of a muscle contraction
  138. exacerbation
    increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms
  139. ganglion cyst
    • tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist
    • to treat, the cyst is aspirated and injected with an anti-inflammatory agent
  140. hemarthrosis
    effusion of blood into a joint cavity
  141. hypotonia
    loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
  142. multiple myeloma
    primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow
  143. osteophyte
    bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord aka bone spur
  144. rickets
    form of osteomalacia in children caused by vit D deficiency; aka rachitis
  145. sequestrum
    fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
  146. spondyloisthesis
    any slipping of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
  147. spondylosis
    degneration fo the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
  148. sprain
    tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete
  149. subluxation
    partial or incomplete dislocation
  150. talipes equinovarus
    congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; aka clubfoot
  151. arthrography
    series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
  152. bone density test
    radiogrpahyic procedures that use low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density (BMD)
  153. computed tomography
    • imaging technique that uses an x-ray beam and a computer to make a series of cross-sectional images of a body part, which together make up a 3D view of the area scanned
    • tissue abnormalities
  154. discography
    radiological exam of the intevertebral disk structures by injecting a contrast medium
  155. lumbosacral spinal radiography
    radiography of the 5 lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine
  156. scintigraphy
    nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
  157. myelography
    radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
  158. bone
    scintigrpahy procedure in which radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
  159. reduction
    procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
  160. closed reduction
    procedure where fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
  161. open reduction
    reduction procedure that treats bone fractures by placing the bones in their proper position using surgery
  162. traction
    use of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture and facilitate the healing process
  163. arthrocentesis
    puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
  164. arthroclasia
    surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
  165. bursectomy
    excision of bursa
  166. laminectomy
    • excision of posterior arc of a vertebra
    • usually performed to relieve symptoms of slipped disk
  167. revision surgery
    surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace worn out prothesis
  168. sequestrectomy
    excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
  169. synovectomy
    excision of a synovial membrane
  170. gold salts
    • treat rehematoid arthritis by inhibitiing activity within the immune system
    • contain actual gold in capsules. prevents further disease progression but cannot reverse past damage
    • aurofin, aurothioglucose
  171. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
    • decrease pain and suppress inflammation
    • ibuprofen, naproxen
  172. salicylates
    • relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
    • aspirin, magnesium salicylate
  173. skeletal muscle relaxants
    • relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
    • due to ms, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke
    • cyclobenzaprine, methocarbamol and aspirin
  174. electrolytes
    mineral salts (Na, K, Ca) that carry an electrical charge in solution
  175. glucagon
    • hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose
    • opposes the action of insulin and is used to reverse hypoglycemic reacions in insulin shock
  176. -stasis
    standing still
  177. sympathomimetic
    • agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine are sympathomimetic hormones because they produce effects that mimic those brought about by the sympathetic nervous system
  178. insulin
    hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar glucose from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates (glycogen)
  179. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • target: adrenal cortex- promotes secretions of some hormones by adrenal cortex, exp. cortisol
    • hyposecretion is rare
    • hypersecretion causes Cushing syndrome
  180. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • target: ovaries-stimulates egg production, increases secretion of estrogen in women
    • target: testes-stimulates sperm production
    • hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation
    • hypersecretion has no significant effects
  181. growth hormone (GH) aka somatotropin
    • target: bone, cartiglate, liver, muscle and other tissues- stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy
    • hyposecretion in children caues pituitary dwarfism
    • hypersecretion in children causes gigantism; acromegaly in adults
  182. leutinizing hormone (LH)
    • target: ovaries- promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and progesterone
    • testes- in males, promotes secretion of testosterone
    • hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation
    • hypersecrection has no known significant effects
  183. Prolactin
    • target: breast- in conjunction with other hormones, promotes lactation
    • hyposecretion- poor lactation in nursing mothers
    • hypersecretion in nursing mothers causes glactorrhea
  184. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • thyroid gland- stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone
    • hyposecretion in infants caues cretinism; in adults myxedema
    • hypersecretion causes Graves disease, indicated by exophthalmos
  185. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • target: kidney- increases water reabsorption (water returns to blood)
    • hyposecretion causes diabetis insipidus
    • hypersecretion causes syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH)
  186. oxytocin
    • target: uterus- stimulates uterine contractiopns; initiates labor
    • target: breast- promotes milk secretion from mammary glands
  187. calcitonin
    • regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone
    • secreted when clcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis
    • most significant effects are exerted in childhood when bones are growing and changing
  188. thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
    • increases energy production from all food types
    • increases rate of protein synthesis
    • hyposecretion in infants caues cretinism; hyposecretion in adults causes myxedema
    • hypersecretion caues Graves disease, indicated by exopthalmos
  189. parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • target: bones- increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood
    • kidneys- increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion
    • small intestine- increases absorption of calcium and phosphate
    • hyposecretion causes tetany
    • hypersecretion causes osteitis fibrosa cystica
  190. glucocortoicoids (mainly cortisol)
    • body cells- promote gluconeogenesis; regulate metabolism of carbs, proteins, fats; helps depress inflammatory and immune responses
    • hyposecretion causes Addison disease
    • hypersecretion causes Cushing syndrome
  191. sex hormones produced by ovaries, testes, and adrenal cortex
    • in females responsible for female libido and source of estrogen after menopause (otherwise effects are insignificant)
    • hypersecretion of adrenal androgen in females leads to virilism (development of feminine characteristics)
  192. epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • sympathetic nervous system target organs- homrone effects mimic sympathetic nervous system activation (sympathomimetic), increase metabolic rate and heart rate, and raise blood pressure by promoting vasoconstriction
    • hypersecretion causes prolonged "fight or flight" reaction and hypertension
  193. glucagon
    • hormone
    • liver and blood- raises blood glucose level by accelerating conversion of glycogen into glucose in the liver (glycogenolysis) and other nutrients into glucose in the liver (gluconeogenesis) and releasing glucose into blood (glycogen to glucose)
    • persistently low blood glucose levels may caused by deficiency in glucagon
  194. insulin
    • hormone
    • tissue cells- lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport into cells and the use of that glucose for energy production (glucose to glycogen)
    • hyposecretion causes diabetis melitus
    • hypersecretion causes hyperinsulinism
  195. connection between endocrine system and blood, lymph, and immune
    • hormones from the thymus stimulate lymphocyte production
    • glucocorticoids depress the immune response and inflammation
  196. cardiovascular and endocrine system
    • hormones influence heart rate, contraction strength, blood volume and blood pressure
    • estrogen helps maintain vascular health in women
  197. digestive and endocrine system
    • hormones help control digestive system activity
    • horomones influence motility and glandular activity of the digestive tract, gallbladder secretion, and secretion of enzymes from the pancreas
    • insulin and glucagon adjust glucose metabolism in the liver
  198. female reproductive
    • hormones play a major role in the development and funtion of the reproductive organs
    • hormones influence the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, parturtion, and lactation
    • sex hormones play a major role in the development of secondary sex characteristics
    • hormone oxytocin triggers contraction of the pregnant uterus and then later stimulates the relase of breast milk
  199. genitourinary and endocrine system
    • hormones play a major role in the development and function of the reproductive organs
    • hormones play a role in sexual development, sex drive, and gamete production
  200. integumentary and endocrine system
    • hormones regulate activity of the sebacious glands, distribution of subcutaneous tissue and growth of hair
    • hormones stimulate melanocytes to produce skin pigment
    • estrogen increases skin hydration
  201. musculoskeltal and endocrine system
    • hormone secretions influence blood flow to muscles during exercise
    • hormones influence muscle metabolism, mass, and strength
    • hormones from the pituitary and thyroid glands and the gonads stimulate bone growth
    • hormones govern blood calcium balance
  202. nervous and endocrine systems
    several hormones play an imporant role in normal maturation and function of nervous system
  203. respiratory and endocrine system
    • hormones stimulate red blood cell production when the body experiences a decreasein oxygen
    • epinephrine influences ventilation by dilating the bronchioles; epinephrine and thyroxine stimulate cell respiration
  204. adrenalectomy
    excision of one or both adrenal glands
  205. crin/o
  206. glycosuria
    abnormal amount of glucose in the urine
  207. kalemia
    potassium in the blood
  208. pancreatotomy
    incision of the pancreas
  209. parathyroidectomy
    excision of the parathyroid glands
  210. thymoma
    tumor of the thymus gland
  211. toxicologist
    specialist in the study of poisons
  212. polydipsia
    excessive thirst
  213. androgen
    any steroid hormone that increases masculinization
  214. andr/o
  215. thyrotoxic
    pertaining to toxic activity of the thyroid gland
  216. glycosuria
    glucose in the urine
  217. euthyroid
    resembling a normal thyroid gland
  218. eu-
    good, normal
  219. -dipsia
  220. -crine
  221. symptoms of type I diabetis
    • c- constant urination
    • a-abnormal thirst (polydipsia)
    • u-unusual hunger (polyphagia)
    • t-the rapid loss of weight
    • i-irritablity
    • o-obvious weakness and fatigue
    • n- nausea and vomiting
  222. symptoms of type II diabetes
    • d-drowsiness
    • i-itching
    • a-a family history of diabetes
    • b-blurred vision
    • e-excessive weight
    • t-tingling, numbness, and pain in the extremeties
    • e-easily fatigued
    • s-skin infections and slow healing of cuts and scratches, exp. of feet
  223. glucagon
    hormone secreted by pancreatic alpha cells
  224. glycosuria
    presence of glucose in the urine or abnormal amount of sugar in the urine
  225. Graves disease
    multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually assoiated with enlarged thyroid gland and exophthalmos
  226. hirsutism
    excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women
  227. kal
  228. hypervolemia
    • abnormal increase in volume of circulating fluid in the body
    • results from retention of large amounts of sodium and water by kidneys
    • weight gain, edema, dyspnea, tachycardia, pulmonary congestion
  229. insulinoma
    tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
  230. panhypopituitarism
    total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormonal actiity
  231. thyroid storm
    crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the blood stream of increased amount of thyroid hormone
  232. virile
    masculine or having characteristics of a man
  233. virilism
    masculinization in a woman or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman
  234. exophthalmometry
    test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball as seen in Graves disease
  235. glucose tolerance test (GTT)
    measures body's ability to metabolize carbs by administering a standard dose of glucose and measuring glucose levels inthe blood and urine at regular intervals
  236. insulin tolerance test
    determines insulin levels in serum by administering insulin and measuring blood glucose levels in blood at regular intervals
  237. protein-bound iodine (PBI)
    • test that measures teh concentration of thyroxine in a blood sample
    • gives an index of thyroid activity
  238. thyroid function test (TFT)
    detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function
  239. total calcium
    • measures clcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders
    • hypercalcemia can indicate primary hyperparathyroidism; hypocalcemia can indicate hypoparathyroidism
  240. radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)
    • administraction of radioactive iodine as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up iodine from the blood
    • results can determine thyroid function
  241. thyroid scan
    • injection of radioactive substance, scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland
    • identify pathological formations such as nodules and tumors
  242. microneurosurgery of the pituitary gland
    microdissection of a tumor using a binocular surgical microscope for magnification
  243. thymectomy
    excision of the thymus gland
  244. pinealectomy
    removal of the pineal body
  245. throidectomy
    • excision of thyroid gland
    • for goiters
    • partial- removing fibrous nodular thyroid
    • subtotal- removal of most of the thyroid to relieve hyperthyroidism
  246. antidiuretics
    • vasopressin
    • Pitressin, Pressyn
  247. antithyroids
    • treat hyperthyroidism by impeding formation of T3 and T4
    • in prep for thyroidectomy and thyrotoxic crisis
    • methimazole (Tapazole) and strong iodine solution (Lugol's solution)
  248. corticosteroids
    • replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency (addison's disease)
    • widely used to supress inflammation, conrol allergic reactions, reduce rejection in trasnplantation, and treat some cancer
    • cortisone (Cotrisone acetate), hydrocortisone
  249. growth hormone replacements
    • increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults
    • increase spinal bone density and help manage groth failure in children
    • somatropin (recombinant)
  250. insulins
    • lower blood glucose by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen
    • regular insulin or NPH insulin
  251. oral antidiabetics
    • treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
    • are not insulin and not used intreating type 1 diabetis mellitus
    • glipizide, glyburide
  252. thyroid supplements
    • replace or supplement thyroid hormones
    • levothyroxine, liothyronine
Card Set:
terminology quiz ch 10 and 13
2011-10-25 18:24:51
terminology quiz 10 13

terminology quiz ch. 10 and 13
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