Chapter 8

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Anonymous
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111974
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Chapter 8
Updated:
2011-10-25 01:14:51
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movement bio bases behaviour
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Control of Movement
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  1. skeletal muscle
    one of the striated muscles attached to bones
  2. flexion
    a movement of a limb that tends to bend its joints; the opposite of extention
  3. extension
    a movement of a limb that tends to straighten its joints; athe opposite of flexion
  4. extrafusal muscle fiber
    one of the muslce fibers that are responsible fort he force exerted by contraction of a skeletal muscle
  5. alpha motor neuron
    a neuron whose axon forms synapeses with extrafusal muscle fibers of a skeletal muscle; activation contracts the muscle fibers
  6. intrafusal muscle fiber
    a muslce fiber that functions as a stretch receptor, arrnged parallel to the extrafusal muscle fibers, thus detecting changes in muscle length
  7. gamma motor neuron
    a neuron whose axons form synapses with intrafusal muscle fibers
  8. motor unit
    a motor neuron and its associated muscle fibers
  9. myofibril
    an element of muscle fibers taht consists of overlapping strands of actin and myosin; responsible for musclar contractions
  10. actin
    one of the proteins (with myosin) that provide the physical basis for muscular contraction
  11. myosin
    one of the proteins (with actin) that provide the physical basis for muscular contraction
  12. striated muscle
    skeletal muscle; muscle that contains striations
  13. neuromuscular junction
    the synapse between the terminal buttons of an axon and a muscle fiber
  14. motor endplate
    the postsynaptic membrane of a neuromuscular junction
  15. endplate potential
    the postsynaptic potential that occurs in the motor endplate in response to release of acetylcholine by the terminal button
  16. Golgi tendon organ
    the receptor organ at the junction of the tendon and muscle that is sensitive to stretch
  17. smooth muscle
    nonstriated muscle innervated by the autonomic nervous system, found in the walls of blood vessels, in the reproductive tracts, in sphincters, within the eye, in the digestive system, and around hair follicles
  18. cardiac muscle
    the muscle responsible for the contraction of the heart
  19. monosynaptic stretch reflex
    a reflex in which a muscle contracts in response to its being quickly stretched; involves a sensory neuron and a motor neuron, with one synapse between them
  20. decerebrate
    describes an animal whose brain stem has been transected
  21. decerebrate rigidity
    simultaneous contraction of agonistic and antagonistic muscles; caused by decerebration of damage to the reticular formation
  22. clas-knife reflex
    a reflex that occurs when force is applied to flex or extend the limb of an animal showing decerebrate rigidity; resistance is replaced by udden relaxtion
  23. agonist
    a muscle whose contraction produces or facilitates a particular movement
  24. antagonist
    a muscle whose contraction resists or reverses a particular movement
  25. somatotopic organization
    a topographically organized mapping of parts of the body that are represented in a particular region of the brain
  26. supplementary motor area (SMA)
    a region of motor association cortex of the dorsal and dorsomedial frontal lobe, rostral to the primary motor cortex
  27. premotor cortex
    a region of motor association cortex of the lateral frontal lobe, rostral to the primary motor cortex
  28. mirror neurons
    neurons located in the ventral premotor cortex and inferior parietal lobule that respond when the individual makes a particular movement or sees another individual making that movement
  29. lateral group
    the corticospinal tract, the corticobulbar tract, and the rubrospinal tract
  30. ventromedial group
    the vestibulospinal tract, the tectospinal tract, the reticulospinal tract, and the ventral corticospinal tract
  31. corticospinal tract
    the system of axons that originates in the motor cortex and terminates in the ventral gray matter of the spinal cord
  32. pryamidla tract
    the portion of the corticospinal tract on the ventral border of the medulla
  33. lateral corticospinal tract
    the system of axons that originatesin the motor cortex and terminates in the contralateral ventral gray matter of the spinal cord; controls movement of the distal limbs
  34. ventral corticospinal tract
    the system of axons that originates in the motor cortex and terminates in the ipsilateral ventral gray matter of the spinal cord; controls movement of the upper legs and trunk
  35. corticobulbar tract
    a bundle of axons from the motor cortex to the fifth, seventh, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth cranial nerves; controls movements of the face, neck, tongue, and parts of the etraocular eye muscles
  36. rubrospinal tract
    the system of axons that travels from the red nucleus to the spinal cord; controls independent limb movements
  37. corticorubral tract
    the system of axons that travels from the motor cortex to the red nucleus
  38. vestibulosinal tract
    a bundle of axons that travels from the vestivular nuclei to the gray matter of the spinal cord; controls postural movements in response to information from the vestibular system
  39. tectospinal tract
    a bundle of axons that travels from the tectum to the spinal cord; coordinates head and trunk movements with eye moements
  40. reticulospinal tract
    a bundle of axons that travels from the reticular formation to the gray matter of the spinal cord; controls the muscles responsible for postural movements
  41. apraxia
    difficulty in carrying out purposeful movements, in the absence of paralysis or muscular weakness
  42. callosal apraxia
    an apraxia of the left hand caused by damage to the anterior corpus callosum
  43. sympathetic apraxia
    a movement disorder of the left hand caused by damage to the left frontal lobe; similar to callosal apraxia
  44. left parietal apraxia
    an apraxia caused by damage to the left parietal lobe; characterized by difficulty in producing sequences of movememnt by verbal request or in imitation of movements made by someone else
  45. constructional apraxia
    difficulty in drawing pircures or diagrams or in making geomtrical constructions of elements such as building blocks or sticks; caused by damage to the right parietal lobe
  46. caudate nucleus
    a telencephalic nucleus, one of the input nuclei of basal ganglia; involved with control of voluntary movememnt
  47. putamen
    a telencephalic nucleus; one of the input nuclei of the basal ganglia; involved with control of voluntary movement
  48. globus pallidus
    a telencephalic nucleus; the primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia; involved with control of voluntary movement
  49. ventral anterior nucleus (of thalamus)
    a thalamic nucleus that receives projections from the basal ganglia and sends projections to the motor cortex
  50. ventrolateral nucleus (of thalamus)
    a thalamic nucleus that receives projections from the basal ganglia and sends projections to the motor cortex
  51. direct pathway (in basal ganglia)
    the pathway that includes the caudate nucleus and putamen, the external division of the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nuclues, the internal division of the globus pallidus, and the ventral anterior/ventrolateral thalamic nuclei ; has an inhibitory effect on movement
  52. indirect pathway (in basal ganglia)
    the pathway that includes the caudate nucleus and putamen, the internal division of the glovus pallidus, and the ventral anterior/ventrolateral thalamic nuclei; has an exitatory effect on movement
  53. Huntington's disease
    a fatal interited disorder that causes degeneration of the caudate nucleus and putamen; characteriazed by unconsctrollable jerking movements, writhing movements, and dementia
  54. flocculonodular lobe
    a region of the cerebellum; involved in control of postural reflexes
  55. vermis
    the portion of the cerebellum located at the midline; recives somatosensory information and helps to control the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts through its connections with the fastigal nucleus
  56. fastigial nucleus
    a deep cerebellar nucleus; involved in the cntrol of movement bye the reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts
  57. interposed nuclei
    a set of deep cerebellar nuclei; involved in the control of the rubrospinal system
  58. pontine nucleus
    a large nucleus in the pons that serves as an important source of input to the cerebellum
  59. dentate nucleus
    a deep cerebellar nucleus; involved in the control of rapid, skilled movements by the corticospinal and rubrospinal systems
  60. mesencephalic locomotor region
    a region of the reticular formation of the midbrain whose stimulation causes alternating movements of the limbs normally seen during locomotion

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