Chapter 8

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awander084
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111993
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Chapter 8
Updated:
2011-10-25 02:51:12
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Cardiovascular System
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  1. 3 major types of vessels
    arteries, capillaries, veins
  2. carry blood from the heart to the body tissues and organs
    arteries
  3. microscopic vessels that join the arterial system with venous system
    capillaries
  4. vessels that return blood to the heart to be reoxygenated
    veins
  5. found in the pericardium
    heart
  6. the heart is composed of three distict layers
    endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
  7. heart layer: serous membrane that lines the four chambers of the heart and its valves and is continuous with the endothelium of the arteries and veins
    endocardium
  8. heart layer: muscular layer of the heart
    myocardium
  9. heart layer: outermost layer of the heart
    epicardium
  10. upper chamber- collects blood
    right atrium, and left atrium
  11. lower chamber- pump blood from heart
    right ventricle and left ventricle
  12. Large Vein: collects and carries blood from the upper body
    Superior Vena Cava
  13. Large Vein: collects and carries blood from the lower body
    Inferior Vena Cava
  14. pumps blood to the lungs
    Right venticle
  15. pumps blood to the entire body
    left ventricle
  16. carries oxygenated blood back to the heart
    pulmonary vein
  17. largest artery of the body
    aorta
  18. between right atrium and right ventricle
    Tricuspid Valve
  19. prevents regurgitation of blood into the right ventricle from the pulmonary artery
    Pulmonic Valve
  20. permits blood flow in one direction from the left ventricle to the aorta
    Aortic semilunar valve
  21. has its own blood supply. ex) coronary arteries
    myocardium
  22. located in the right atrium and possesses its own intrinsic rhythm
    SA node
  23. located at the base of the right atrium
    -after SA node is transmitted it causes the atria to contract
    AV node
  24. record the electrical impulses of the heart on graph paper
    electrocardiograph
  25. Blood Pressure: 120/80
    What is the 120?
    systolic- contraction phase when the blood is forced out of the heart
  26. Blood Pressure: 120/80
    What is 80?
    diastolic- relaxation phase when the ventricles are filling with blood
  27. elevated BP
    Hypertension
  28. low BP
    hypotension
  29. portion of the nervous system thatregulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, and peristalsis
    autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  30. thin, flattened structure; term used to describe the leaf-shaped structures that compose the heart valve
    leaflet
  31. tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body
    lumen
  32. backflow or ejecting of contents through an opening
    regurgitation
  33. circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to reulate passage of substances through its opening
    sphincter
  34. narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medications, or physiological processes
    vasoconstriction
  35. widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls
    vasodilation
  36. state of being sticky or gummy
    viscosity
  37. contains to arteries
    umbilical cord
  38. develops during pregnacy and is expelled after delivery; delievers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and removes waste from the fetus
    placenta
  39. widened blood vessel
    aneurysm/o
  40. angi/o or vascul/o
    vessel (usually blood or lymph)
  41. aort/o
    aorta
  42. arteri/o
    artery
  43. arteriol/o
    arteriole
  44. atri/o
    atrium
  45. ather/o
    fatty plague
  46. cardi/o
    heart
  47. electr/o
    electricity
  48. embol/o
    embolus (plug)
  49. hemangi/o
    blood vessel
  50. my/o
    muscle
  51. phleb/o or ven/o
    vein
  52. scler/o
    hardening
  53. sept/o
    septum
  54. sphygm/o
    pulse
  55. sten/o
    narrowing
  56. thromb/o
    blood clot
  57. ventricul/o
    ventricle (of the heart or brain)
  58. record or writing
    gram
  59. instrument for recording
    graph
  60. process of recording
    graphy
  61. sphyxia
    pulse
  62. stenosis
    narrowing
  63. brady
    slow
  64. endo
    in, within
  65. extra
    outside
  66. peri
    around
  67. tachy
    rapid
  68. trans
    across
  69. medical specialty concerned with disorders of the cardiovascular system
    cardiology
  70. physician who treats these disorders dealing with the cardiovascular system
    cardiologist
  71. signs and symptoms of heart problems
    chest pain (angina), palpitations, breathing difficulties (dyspnea), cardiac irregularities (arrhythmias), loss of consciousness (sycope), cardiac arrest
  72. hardening of the arterial walls that cause them to become thickened and brittle
    arteriosclerosis
  73. failure of the coronary arteries to deliver an adequate supply of blood to the myocardium (CAD)
    Coronary Artery Disease
  74. inflammation of the inner lining of the heart and its valves
    endocarditis
  75. bacteria travels in the blood stream lodge in weaken heart tissue ans form small masses
    bacteremia
  76. infection of a deep vein with clot formation
    thrombophlebitis
  77. clots that move within the vascular system
    embolus or emboli
  78. sugical removal by excision of an emboli or embolus
    embolectomy
  79. dissolving of emboli or embolus with pharmaceuticals
    thrombolysis
  80. localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
    aneurysm
  81. condition of being stopped or bringing to a stop
    arrest
  82. inability of the heart to maintain a normal sinus rhythm, possibily including a rapid or slow beat or skipping beat
    arrhythmia or dysrhythmia
  83. soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action, or both
    bruit
  84. any disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminishes cardiac funcation
    cardiomyopathy
  85. thin, flexible, hollow plastic tube that is small enough to be threaded through a vein, artery or tubular structure
    catheter
  86. narrowing of a vessel; especially the aorta
    coarctation
  87. blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body
    DVT- deep vein thrombosis
  88. calculation of how much blood a ventricle can eject with one contraction
    EF- ejection fraction
  89. failure of the heart to supply an adequate amount of blood to tissues and organs
    HF- heart failure
  90. quivering or spntaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart
    fibrillation
  91. arrest of bleeding or circulation
    hemostatasis
  92. excessive amounts of lipids in the blood
    hyperlipidemia
  93. common disorder characterized by elevated blood pressure persistently exceeding 140mm Hg systolic or 90mm Hg diastolic
    HTN- hypertension (high blood pressure)
  94. implantable battery-powered device that monitors ans automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or finrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart
    ICD- implantable cardioverter defibrillator
  95. area of tissue that undergos necrosis following cessation of blood supply
    infarct
  96. sensation that the heart is notbeating normally
    palpitation
  97. circulation of blood through tissues or the passage of fluids through vessels of an organ
    perfusion
  98. blood clot that obstructs a vessel
    thrombus
  99. passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart
    CC- cardiac catheterization
  100. graphic line recording that shows the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs
    ECG, EKG-electrocardiogram
  101. ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions
    stress test
  102. radiological examination of the aorta and its branches following injection of a contrast medium via a catheter
    aortography
  103. noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and produce images of the heart
    ECHO- echocardiography
  104. noninvasive technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field
    MRI- magnetic resonance imaging
  105. nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to produce movie-like images of the structureof the heart
    MUGA- multiple-gated acquisition
  106. radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein
    venography
  107. procedure that alters a vessel through surgery or dilation of the vessel using a balloon catheter
    angioplasty
  108. removal of material from an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device
    atherectomy
  109. removal and examination of a small piece of tissue for diagonostic purposes
    biopsy
  110. destruction of conduction tissue of the heart to interrupt the abnormal conduction pathway causing the arrhythmia
    catheter ablation
  111. surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart
    open heart surgery
  112. puncturing of the pericardium to remove excess fluid from the pericardial sac or test for protien, sugar, and enzymes or determine the causative organism of pericarditis
    pericardiocentesis
  113. destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters
    thrombolysis
  114. incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening
    valvotomy
  115. puncture of a vein by a needle attached to a syringe or catheter to withdraw a specimen of blood
    venipuncture
  116. dilate blood vessels of the heart, causing increase in amount of oxygen delivered to the myocardium
    nitrates
  117. act on kidneys to increase excretion of water and sodium
    diuretics
  118. block movement of calcium into myocardial cells and arterial walls causing heart rate and blood pressure to decrease
    calcium channel blockers
  119. block the effects of adrenaline on beta receptors which slow nerve pulses that pass through the heart, causing decrease heart rate and contactility
    beta blockers
  120. lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme that produce it
    statins
  121. prevent, alleviate or correct cardiac arrhythmia by stabalizing the conduction of the heart
    antiarrhythmics
  122. abdominal aortic aneurysm
    AAA
  123. atrial fibrillation
    AF
  124. aortic stenosis
    AS
  125. atrial septal defect
    ASD
  126. arteriosclerotic heart disease
    ASHD
  127. bundle-branch block
    BBB
  128. blood pressure
    BP, B/P
  129. coronary artery bypass graft
    CABG
  130. coronary artery disease
    CAD
  131. cardiac catheterization
    CC
  132. coronary care unit
    CCU
  133. coronary heart disease
    CHD
  134. cardioplumonary resuscitation
    CPR
  135. deep vein thrombosis
    DVT
  136. electrocardiogram
    ECG, EKG
  137. echocardiogram
    ECHO
  138. ejection fraction
    EF
  139. high-density lipoprotein
    HDL
  140. hypertension
    HTN
  141. low-density lipoprotein
    LDL
  142. myocardial infarction
    MI
  143. Mitral valve prolapse
    MVP
  144. normal sinus rhythm
    NSR
  145. percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
    PTCA
  146. ventricular septal defect
    VSD
  147. ventricular tachycardia
    VT

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