How many different types of cells are in the human body?
210 distinct human cell types
What are the three main tenets of tissue engineering? What is an additional factor that should be considered?
Growth Factors (Biomolecules)
ECM/Scaffold (Biomaterials for organization)
The forth factor that should be considered is the environment.
What are some new innovations that will be coming for medicine?
Innovations in biomaterials, biomimetics, biomedicine, bioinformatics
Technologies for developing countries (such as the cold chain for delivering drugs)
Infrastructure - water and energy
What is a common believe for the source of diseases?
Grip strength may be a method to measure for aging effects.
What is the Medici Effect?
Groups of people from different backgrounds or disciplines coming together and sharing their ideas. This allows for ideas of one discipline to have an affect on the ideas of another discipline.
What are some of the benefits of materials science and biomedicine for healthcare?
Preventing, detecting, treating and repairing disease, dysfunction and/or aging.
What are some of the benefits of materials science and biomedicine in biomimetics?
Fundamental biology, tissue engineering, shark skin, hydrophobic/hydrophilic beetles
What are some of the benefits of materials science and biomedicine for materials from biology?
Silk, collagen, botanical proteins
What is biomimetics?
Biomimetics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems as models for the design and engineering of materials and machines. It is widely regarded as being synonymous with biomimicry, biomimesis, biognosis and similar to biologically inspired design.
What is an example of biomimetics with shark skin?
The shark skin's grooved scales surface (a rectangular base embedded in the skin with tiny spines) prevents sea plants and organisms from adhering to it, thereby, reducing drag.
What materials were used indiscriminately by early users?
What are some considerations that cause businesses to fail in tissue engineering?
Regulatory approval (FDA)
In a comparision between natural polymers and synthetic polymers, what are some examples of natural polymers and the associated advantages/disadvantages?
Natural polymners include
Easy for cell seeding hydrophilicity
Difficult to process
Poor mechanical properties/mechanically weak
In a comparision between natural polymers and synthetic polymers, what are some examples of synthetic polymers and the associated
Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
Poly(glycolic acid) (PGA)
Easy to process
Mechanical, chemical and biodegradation properties can be engineered by molecular design
Lack of cell-recognition signals
May invoke inflammation
Hydrolysis leads to degradation
What is biocompatibility?
May be functionally defined as the acceptance of the material by the surrounding tissues and fluids of the human body and by the body as a whole, and the ability of the material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application.
What is systemic toxitity?
Toxicity to tissues some distance away from the intial source.
Toxicity at some distance from the site of initial insult. The mechanisms by which substances are rendered toxic are varied and complex; may be due to:
Direct chemical toxicity
Accumulation of products from wear
Corrosion or degradation
Excess inflammatory response
Biomaterials should be carefully evaluated and studied for toxicity in vitro before being implanted. Such testing must include the intact material, as well as the degradation and wear products that may be produced during function.
What is cytotoxicity?
Toxicity towards cells, typically local.
The extent to which the material kills cells in cell cultures.
Measuring cytotoxicity may be done by the following:
Direct contact - place a piece of material on top of a layer of cells
Agar diffusion test - a layer of agar between the cells and sample to be tested
Elution test - the material is soaked in fluid and this fluid is applied to the cell culture
What is the typical use for metal biomaterials?
Load bearing applications and must have sufficient fatigue strength to endure the rigors of daily acitivity (ie walking, chewing etc)
What are some advantages and disadvantages of metallic biomaterials?
Easy to sterilize
Metal ion sensitivity and toxicity
What is the typical use of ceramic biomaterials?
Ceramic biomaterials are generally used for their hardness and wear resistance for applications such as articulating surfaces in joints and teeth as well as bone bonding surfaces in implants.
What are some advantages and disadvantages to ceramic biomaterials?
High compression strength
Wear and corrosion resistance
High modulus (mismatched with bone)
Low strength in tension
Low fracture toughness
Difficult to fabricate
What is bioinert or nonabsorbable materials?
Materials that are:
Non-toxic, noncarcinogenic, nonallergic, relatively noninflammatory, and biocompatible while resisting corrosion and wear.
What are surface-reactives ceramics?
Materials that elicity the tissue ingrowth and bonding for structural integrity.
What are resorbable ceramics?
Materials that are gradually resorbed by the body and taken place by the body's own tissues for form and function.
What are polymer biomaterials?
Polymers are chains of repeating monomer(s) that are easy to tailor to the desired properties. Polymers are typically used for their flexibility and stability but have also been used for low friction surfaces.
What are some advantages and disadvantages to polymeric biomaterials?