Chapter 14

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Chapter 14
2011-10-25 12:57:10
human communication

human communication
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  1. cerebrobascular accident
    a "stroke"; brain damage caused by occlusion or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain
  2. aphasia
    difficulty in producing or comprehending speech not prduced by deafness or a simple motor deficit; caused by brain damage
  3. Broca's aphasia
    a form of aphasia characterized by agrammatism, anomia, and extreme difficulty in speech articulation
  4. function word
    a preposition, article, or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical structure
  5. content word
    a noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning
  6. Broca's area
    a region of frontal cortex, located just rostral to the base of the left primary motor cortex, that is necessary for normal speech production
  7. agrammatism
    one of the usual symptom sof Broca's aphasia; a difficulty in comprehending or proprely employing grammatical devices, such as verb endings and word order
  8. anomia
    difficulty in finding (remembering) the appropriate word to describe an object, action, or attribute; one of the symptoms of aphasia
  9. apraxia of speech
    impairment in the ability to program movements of the tongue, lips, and throat required to produce the proper sequence of speech sounds
  10. Wernicke's area
    a region of auditory association cortex on the left temporal love of humans, which is important in the comprehension of words and the production of meaningful speech
  11. Wernicke's aphasia
    a form of aphasia characterized by poor speech comprehension and fluent but meaningless speech
  12. pure word deafness
    the ability to hear, to speak, and (usually) to read and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by damage to Wernicke's area or disruption of auditory input to this region
  13. transcortical sensory aphasia
    a speech disorder in which a person has difficulty comprehending speech and producing meaningful spontaneous speech but can repeat speech; caused by damage to the region of the brain posterior to Wernicke's area
  14. autotopagnosia
    inability to name body parts or to identify body parts that another person names
  15. arcuate fasciculus
    a bundle of axons that connects Wernicke's area with Broca's area; damage causes conduction aphasia
  16. conduction aphasia
    an aphasia characterized by inability to repeat words that are heard but the ability to speak normally an dcomprehend the speech of others
  17. circumlocution
    a strategy by which people with anomia find alternative ways to say something when they are unable to think of the most appropirate word
  18. prosody
    the use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an imporant means of communication of emotion
  19. pure alexia
    loss of the ability to read without loss of the ability to write; produced by brain damage
  20. whole-word reading
    reading by recognizing a word as a whole; "sight reading"
  21. phonetic reading
    reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings; "sound reading"
  22. surface dyslexia
    a reading disorder in which a person can read words phonetically but has difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the whole-word method
  23. phonological dyslexia
    a reading disorder in which a person can read familiar words but has difficulty reading unfamiliar words or pronounceable nonwords
  24. word-form dyslexia
    a disorder in which a person can read a word only after spelling out the individual letters
  25. spelling dyslexia
    an alternative name for word-form dyslexia
  26. direct dyslexia
    a language disorder caused by brain damage in which the person can read words aloud without understanding them
  27. phonological dysgraphia
    a writing disorder in which the person cannot sound out words and write them phonetically
  28. orthographic dysgraphia
    a writing disorder in which the person can spell regularly spelled words but not irregularly spelled ones
  29. developmental dyslexia
    a reading difficulty in a person of normal intelligence and percetual ability; of genetic origin or caused by prenatal or perinatal factors