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two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as "us."
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity.
(1) Original meaning: the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present. (2) Current meaning: the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) resposnes in the presence of others.
concern for how others are evaluating us.
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable.
people who benefit from the group but give little in return.
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
group-produced enhancement of memebrs' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group.
evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others.
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding.
the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action.
symptoms of groupthink
- (1) illusion of invulnerability
- (2) unquestioned belief in group's morality
- (3) rationalization
- (4) stereotyped view of opponent
- (5) conformity pressure
- (6) self-censorship
- (7) illusion of unanimity
- (8) mindguards (some members protect the group from information that would call into question the effectiveness or morality of its decisions)
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group.
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support.
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence.