Anthopology 102-Primates

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Anthopology 102-Primates
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2011-10-25 20:13:48
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Primates Monkeys
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Chap 6-7-8 Primates
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  1. Taxonomy?
    • *Used to relate organisms
    • *Hierarchey of taxa groups
    • *Binomial Nomenclature(System of naming Species)
    • *Genus
  2. K-selective Traits?
    • Long time until reproductive
    • High parental care
    • Long lifespans
    • Large Body size
    • Fewer offspring
    • Ex. Elephants, Humans, Whales
  3. r-selective traits?
    • Short time until reproductive
    • Minimal/low parental care
    • Shorter lifespans
    • Smaller body size
    • Many offspring
    • Ex. Insects, Rodents, Fish
  4. 6 Mammalian Traits?
    • 1. Lactation
    • 2. Fur or Hair
    • 3. Jaw is one bone
    • 4. Middle ear consists of 3 bones
    • 5. Diaphram
    • 6. One Primary artery leaves heart bending left
    • *generally true/ not rule
    • *Homeothermic(warm-blooded)
    • *Parental Care
  5. Primate Traits?
    • 1.Opposable Halux (Big Toe)
    • 2.Nails instead of Claws
    • 3.Foward facing eyes
    • 4.Postorbital bar
    • 5.Petrosal auditory bulla
    • *General/not rule
    • *often K-selective
    • *relatively large brain
    • *Reduced number of teeth
    • *Dietary Plasicity
  6. Defintion of Cladistic?
    Shared Derived Traits (Evolutionary Classification)
  7. Definition of Gradistic?
    Primitive Ancestral Traits
  8. (Dating Fossils)
    What are forms of Relative Dating?
    • Fortine Dating (Chemical dating compares accumilation flourine in animal bones)
    • Stratigraphic Dating (The process of Matching up strata from several sites through analysis of chemical, physical)
    • Chemical Dating (Dating Methods that use predictable chemical changes that occur over time)
  9. (Dating Fossils)
    What are forms of Absolute Dating?
    • Radiocarbon Dating (The Radiometric dating method in which 14C to 12C is measured to provide an absolute date for material younger than 50k yrs)
    • Radio Potassium Dating (The radiometric dating method in which the ratio of 40K to 40AR is measured to provide an absolute date for 200K or older)
    • Dendron Chronology ( A Chronomatic dating method that uses a tree-ring count to determine numerical age)
  10. Paleonthropology?
    • Using fossil evidence with focus on human origins
    • Fossils fill in holes in evolution (Ida Fossil)
    • Plastic distortion
  11. Paleocene
    • 65-55 MYBP
    • Ancestral form, very primitive
    • Not considered true primate
    • Plesiadapiforms (primate-like mammals)
  12. Eocene
    • 54-36 MYBP
    • First True Primates
    • Great prosimian(strepsirhine) adaptive radiation
    • Ancestral forms of modern lemurs/Tarsiers
    • Large eyes suggest nocturnal
    • Stereoscopic vision (perceive depth, distance)
    • *2 families
    • *Adapidae(lemurs)
    • *Omomyidae(Tarsiers)
  13. Oligocene
    • 35-MYBP
    • Anthropoid fossils (most from W. Eygpt)
    • Found in both OW and NW
    • Greater realiance on vision, less on smell
    • All generalized quadrupeds
    • Probably diurnal
  14. Miocene
    • 23-5 MYBP
    • Apes Evolve
    • Primarily Africa and Asia
    • 2 major Genera: Dryopithecines & Ramapithecines
    • 6 MYBP Chimps and Hominids Split
  15. Adapids
    • Lemur like
    • -small incisors (canine teeth)
    • -no ear tube
    • Postoribital bar
    • Elongated Snout
  16. Omomyids
    • Tarsier-like
    • Short Snout
    • Post oribital closure
  17. Anthropoid Split
    • Early Catarrhines
    • Aegyptopithecus
    • -Oligocene anthiopoid
    • -Fayum, Egypt
    • -2 1 2 3 Dental Pattern
    • -Frugivore
    • -Quadrupede (with leaping and climbng)
    • -Sexual Dimorphism (Visual Difference between males and females)
  18. Hominoid Split
    • procunsul (genus of primates)
    • Early and Middle Miocene
    • East Africa (Kenya & Uganda)
    • Large Range of Body Size
    • Sexually Domorphic
    • Combination of monkey and ape (Skeletal Features)
  19. Oreopithecus
    • Middle/late Miocene
    • Eurasia
    • Possible Leaf eater
    • Forrest Dweller
    • Moderatley Large; Sexually Dimorphic
    • Suspensory Locomotion (hanging from branches)
  20. Dryopithicus
    • Mid to Late Miocene
    • Lived in Hungary & Spain
    • Long Low Brain Case
    • Lower Face tilting Downward
    • Thinner Enamel
  21. Sivapithecus
    • Middle to Late Miocene
    • Eurasia
    • Thicker Enamel
    • Many derived features in common with Orangutans
    • Climbing & Suspensory
  22. Gigantopithecus
    • Middle to Late Miocene
    • Eurasia
    • Large/Massive Body Size
    • Folivor (Bamboo) Bigger than Gorilla
    • End of Miocene, Decline of Asian Apes
  23. Strepsirhines (prosimians)
    • Gradistic based ancestral traits
    • Gradistic Prosimians & Anthropoids
    • Cladistic Based on Shared-Derived Traits
  24. 6 Anatomical Traits of Stepsirhines
    • 1. Tapetum Lucidum (eyeshine)
    • 2.Rhinarium (wet snout)
    • 3.Long Snout
    • 4.Post-oribital Bar
    • 5.Tooth-comb & grooming claw
    • 6.Smaller Brain to Body size ratio
  25. 2 Lemuriformes?
    • Lemurs
    • Lorises
  26. Lemurs
    • Endemic to Madagascar
    • Variation and Ecological Niches
    • -Sympathetic Speciation (Many species survive in same location)
    • Nocturnal and Diurnal
    • Solitary and Group Living
  27. Ring-Tailed Lemur
    • Most Terrestrial of Lemurs (lives on land)
    • Multi-male/Multi-female groups
    • Crespuscular (between dawn and sunrise)
    • Female Dominant
    • Stink Fighters
  28. Sifaka (Lemur)
    • Vertical Clingers and Leapers
    • Small Family Groups 3-9 Individuals
    • Multi-Male/Multi-Female
    • Female Dominant
  29. INDRI (Lemur)
    • Vertical Clingers and Leapers
    • Largest Living Lemur
    • Monogamous pairs
    • Taboos (Tribe supersitions)
  30. Ruffed Lemurs
    • Black & White or Red Ruffled
    • Infant Parking
    • Arboreal Quadrapedalism (moves among branches with all four limbs)
  31. Bamboo Lemurs
    • 3 Different Species
    • Ranomafana National Park
    • Sympathetic Speciation(evolution of a new species that inhabit the same geographic region)
  32. Mouse Lemurs
    • Smallest Lemur Species
    • Solitary
    • Nocturnal
  33. Aye-Aye (lemur)
    • Specialized Dentition
    • Elongated Fingers
    • Large Ears
    • Seed Predator & Insect feeder
    • Taboos
  34. Lorises
    • India & Southeast Asia
    • - Slow Loris
    • -Slender Loris
  35. Pottos & Angwantibos (Lorisdae)
    • Infant parking
    • Nocturnal and Solitary
    • Slow Quadrupedalism
    • Toxic Saliva
  36. Galagos AKA Bush Babies (Lorisdae)
    • Subsaharan Africa & Zanzibar
    • Male Dominant
    • Infant Parking
  37. Tarsiiformes
    • Prosimian or haplorhine??
    • Tarsiers-Southeast Asia
    • Nocturnal-No Tapetum Lucidum (eyeshine)
    • No tooth-comb
    • Post-orbital bar? Closure?
    • Dry nose. Short Snout
    • Grooming Claw
  38. How have Lemurs become such a Diverse Primate Group?
    • Adaptive Radiation
    • Isolation
    • Available Niches
  39. Why do islands often exhibit a plethora of new species and different bizarre features?
    • Geographic Isolation
    • Co-Evolution
    • Minimal Competition
  40. 2 situations that might produce similar complexity in animal diversity?
    • Extreme Enviornments
    • Extremophiles (extreme condition)
  41. Haplorhine (Monkeys)
    • No Tapetum Lucidum (eyeshine)
    • No Rhinarium (wet nose)
    • Short Snout
    • Post-Orbital Closure
    • No tooth comb
    • Larger Brain to Body Size Ratio
  42. Old World Haplorhine?
    Catarrhini
  43. New World Haplorhine?
    Platyrrhini
  44. Platyrrhini
    • Came to new world? (island hopping or rafting?)
    • Broad, Lateral facing nostrils
    • Three Pre-Molars
    • -2133
    • -2133
  45. Marmosets & Tamarins (Monkeys)(Platyrrhini)
    • Have Claw-Like Nails
    • Tendency towards twins
    • Pygmy marmoset
    • many gumnivores
    • Polyandry (1:female;2 males)
  46. Capuchin Monkey (Platyrrhini)
    • Semi-Prehensile Tail (hang and grab weight with tail)
    • Polygamy
    • Largest Brain to body size ration of NHP(non-humn primate)
    • Cultural tool use
  47. Squirrel Monkey (Platyrrhini)
    • Seasonally Sexually Dimorphic
    • Arboreal Quadruped (walk 4 limbs on branches)
    • Bachelor groups
  48. Owl Monkey (Platyrrhini)
    • Sexually Dimorphic
    • Only Nocturnal Monkey
    • Sub-species shows Cathemerality
    • Frugivorous
  49. Howler Monkeys, Spider Monkeys, Wolly Monkey & Muriqui (Platyrrhini)
    • True Prehensile Traits (tail can grasp support body weight)
    • Frugivore (seed dispersers)
    • Murqui (Karen Strier)
  50. Catarrhini
    • Monkeys, Apes, Humans
    • Narrow, Downward facing Nostrils
    • 2 premolars
  51. Colobus Monkeys, Snub-Nosed Monkeys, Probesis monkeys and Langurs (Catarrhini)
    • Stub or No thumb
    • Folivore
    • Sacculated Stomach (Chambered Stomach, Helps Break down plant material)
    • Alloparenting
    • Some Polygamy Groups (Multi-female/one Male)
  52. Macaques, Baboons. Drills & Mandrills (Catarrhini)
    • Cheek Pouches
    • Mostly Omnivores
    • Larges troops, Social Hierarchy
    • Polygamy
    • Alpha Pair
    • Sexual Dimorphism
    • Terrestrial Quadrupeds
    • Maternal Care
  53. Cercopithecidae?
    • Old world monkey
    • -Africa and Asia
    • All have Ishial Callosities (Thickend skin(buttocks)
    • -Baboons, Macaques, langur
  54. New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini)
    • Flat-Nosed
    • prehensile tails
    • 3 premolars relatively large
    • Male involvement infant care
    • Tympanic membrane connected to ear by a bony ring
    • thumb in line with other digits
  55. Old World Monkeys (Catarrhini)
    • Downfacing Nose
    • 2 premolars
    • Tympanic Membrane connected to External ear by bony tube
    • Tails have no prehensility feature
    • Thumbs are rotated and more opposable
    • male involvement rare in infant care
  56. Apes?
    • Includes all apes and humans
    • No Tails
    • Y-5 Molar patterns
    • Larger Brains
    • Robust Hallux (Large Big Toe)
  57. Lesser Apes: Gibbons & Siamangs
    • Brachiation (under hand swinging from branches)
    • Socially Monogamous
    • -Extra Pair Copulations (mistress)
    • Vocal Duetting
    • Southeast Asia
  58. Orangutan?
    • Solitary
    • Suspensory Locomotion
    • Repression of Sexual Characteristics
    • Mother/Infant Pair
    • Male Long Calls
    • Culture
    • Birute Galdikas (Jane Goodall of Orangutans)
  59. Gorilla?
    • Silver Back Males
    • Polygamy
    • -Infantcide
    • Folivore/Frugivore
    • Knuckle Walking
    • Culture
    • Diane Fossey(Gorillas in the Mist)
  60. Chimpanzee?
    • Fission-Fusion Groups (Small groups form back up into one big group)
    • Culture
    • Knuckle Walking
    • Hunting
    • Warfare
    • Jane Goodall
  61. Bonobo?
    • Fission-Fusion Group
    • Culture
    • Knuckle Walking
    • Make Love Not War
    • Female Dominant
  62. Why are Primates in Peril?
    • Hunting
    • Pet Trade
    • Deforestiation
    • Overlapping resource Use
  63. Anthropoid?
    Having Characteristics of a human being
  64. Strepsirhines (sub-order primate)
    • More evolutionarily ancestral features and adaptations than their haplorhine
    • wet noses
  65. Haplorhine (sub-order primate)
    • Dry nosed
    • More evolved Caarrhine

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