Meg Smith

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Anonymous
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112129
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Meg Smith
Updated:
2011-10-25 16:26:30
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Cog Exam
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Cognitive
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  1. What is memory?
    • More than 1 process involved
    • Retaining, retrieving, and using info
  2. Memory Basics
    • Reaction against the time
    • STM (primary)
    • LTM (secondary)
  3. Modal Model of Memory
    • Multi-store approach
    • Multiple structural features
    • Distinctions between STM and LTM
  4. STM and LTM Distinctions
    • 1. Activity
    • 2. Access
    • 3. Capacity
    • 4. Forgetting
    • 5. Maintenance
    • 6. Code
  5. Activity
    • STM = effortful
    • -rehearsal
    • LTM = hibernation
    • Will lose STM if you are not constantly working on it because more stuff is being taken in all the time
  6. Access
    • Availability of info in STM v. LTM
    • LTM: slow, effortful retrieval
    • STM: immediately available
  7. Neuro Evidence of Multiple Stores
    • Patient H.M.
    • Good memory for events before surgery
    • STM in tact
    • Could learn new skills (procedural memory)
    • Anterograde Amnesia (declarative memory)
    • Cannot transfer STM to LTM (In hippocampus)
  8. Capacity
    • LTM: limitless
    • STM: leaky bucket - only limited number of things at a given time
  9. Capacity (Memory Span)
    • Amount remembered at once w/out any aid
    • Millers (+) or (-) 2
  10. Capacity (Chunking)
    • Chunk = bundle of info
    • Good at chunking = good at understanding
    • Individual differences in memory = chunking abilities
    • Chess player and runner example
  11. Forgetting
    • STM: rapid forgetting w/out rehearsal
    • -Distractor tests to prevent rehearsal
    • General finding for STM: recall declines rapidly overtime
    • Very rapid forgetting w/more recall interval
  12. Interference Theory
    • Other material interfering with info in STM
    • Recall declines with increase in number of intervening items
  13. Decay Theory
    • Time
    • Even without interfering
    • Recall declines with increase in time
  14. Waugh & Norman
    • If items decay, intervening info should not matter, only time should
    • Probe digit task
    • Rusty nail metaphor
    • - 2 nails, one in mason jar
    • - only 1 nail is rusted b/c it is protected from any interfering objects
    • - exposure time did not play a role
  15. Interference
    • Retroactive: forgetting due to info presented after learning
    • -> at party, meet people, see the first person you met at the end of the night and cant remember name
    • Proactive: forgetting due to info presented before learning
    • -> mail card to new house but only can remember old address
  16. Maintenance
    • Info maintained in STM based on sound
    • Rehearsal = silent speech
  17. Verbal Rehearsal
    • 1. Pronunciation speed
    • 2. Retrieval speed
    • Memory span related to how quickly you can rehearse things
  18. Acoustic Confusions
    • Acoustic codes in reading : we subvocalize text
    • reading speed limited to speech speed
    • no subvocalizing = no detail recall
    • Important for STM maintenance
  19. Codes
    • Acoustic codes : verbal rehearsal keeps info in STM
    • Alternative code for STM
  20. Coding in STM
    • Hierarchal organization:
    • Categories
    • Meaning
    • Chunking:
    • Not based on sound
  21. Working Memory
    • Role: perform mental activities such as reasoning, decision making, problem solving
    • Active subset of LTM
    • Working memory = STM
    • Phonological and visiospatial loop
  22. Evidence of Phonological Loop
    • Sound interferes with phonological loop
    • Not any sound interferes, it has to be specific to speech
    • All types of speech interfere
  23. Phonological Loop
    • Recode visual info into acoustic info
    • Keeps items active in WM
  24. Visuospatial Sketchpad
    • Perfect sentence recall in spatial material
    • Poor sentence recall in nonsense material
  25. Central Executive
    • Select strategies to keep info in WM
    • Attention controller: poor CE activity = slip of action
  26. Episodic Buffer
    • Increases capacity
    • Integrates LTM with VS Sketchpad and phonological loop
    • Creates multimodal code
  27. 3 Processess of LTM
    • 1. Encoding/Acquisition
    • 2. Retention
    • 3. Retrieval
  28. Encoding
    • Storing info in LTM:
    • requires transfer from STM
    • Advantages of LTM:
    • slow rate of forgetting
    • unlimited capacity
    • Possible Encoding strategies (control processes):
    • rehearsal
    • coding
    • imaging
  29. Encoding/Acquisition Strategies
    • Rehearsal : verbal repetition
    • - maintained in STM
    • - transferred into LTM
    • Coding : semantic elaboration
    • - include relevant context (playing piano)
    • Imaging : constructing mental images
  30. Verbal Rehearsal
    • Learning by repetition
    • - abstract info is good, lots of info is bad
  31. Serial Position Effect
    • Primacy effect - good recall for first words
    • lots of rehearsal
    • retrieval from LTM

    • Recency effect - good recall for last words
    • still active
    • retrieval from STM
  32. LTM Processes (Retention)
    • Time between encoding and retrieval
    • Retention interval --> retrieval fluency
  33. Retention
    • Distinction between 2 types of judgements of learning
    • 1. Experience based
    • 2. Theory based: understanding how variables influence retention
  34. LTM Processes (Retrieval)
    • Recovering info from LTM
    • Preliminary memory search for relevant info
    • Requires effective retrieval strategies
    • Tip of the tongue phenomenon
  35. TOT Phenomenon
    • Info temporarily locked
    • Sense of knowing info is in LTM
  36. Studying TOT
    • 1. Lab Approach:
    • recall words that elicit TOT state
    • 2. Diary Approach (naturalistic)
    • document TOT at home
  37. Lab Approach
    • Partial Info
    • length of words
    • sounds w/in word
    • Generate plausible words
    • Use context
    • Successful retrieval = planned searches of memory
  38. Explicit/Declarative Memory
    • Episodic: specific events (REMEMBERING)
    • time and place locked in with info
    • mental time travel
    • Semantic: general knowledge (KNOWING)
    • not associated with context/personal experience

    THE 2 CAN ENHANCE EACH OTHER

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