Neurology Exam 2

Card Set Information

Author:
sami.freeze
ID:
112156
Filename:
Neurology Exam 2
Updated:
2011-10-26 11:38:53
Tags:
Neuro
Folders:

Description:
Exam 2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user sami.freeze on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Sensory Receptors in Skin
    • Free Nerve Endings
    • Encapsulated Nerve Endings
    • Separate specialized cells
  2. Free Nerve Endings
    • Bare dendrites
    • Pain, Thermal, Tickle, itch and light touch (non-localizable)
  3. Encapsulated nerve endings
    • Dendrites encased in connective tissue capsule
    • Pressure, vibration and deep touch
    • ex. pacinian corpuscles, meissner"s corpuscles
  4. Separate specialized cells
    • Hair cells
    • Gustatory cells
    • Photoreceptors
  5. Muscle spindles
    • Muscle stretch (measure muscle length)
    • Velocity
  6. Golgi tendon organs
    • Tendon tension
    • ex. Knee jerk reflex
  7. Joint receptors
    Respond to mechanical deformation of the capsule and ligaments
  8. Sensory Fibers
    1a and 1b
    • largest
    • fastest
    • primary muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs
  9. Sensory Fibers
    II or A-beta
    • 2nd largest, 2nd fastest
    • Secondary muscle spindles, skin mechanoreceptors
  10. Sensory Fibers
    III or A-delta
    • 2nd smallest, 2nd slowest
    • skin mechanoreceptors, thermal, nociceptors
  11. Sensory Fibers
    IV or C
    • smallest
    • slowest
    • skin mechanoreceptors, thermal, nociceptors
  12. Motor Fibers
    A-alpha
    • Largest
    • Fastest
    • Extrafusal skeletal muscle fibers
  13. Motor Fibers
    A-gamma
    Intrafusal muscle fibers
  14. Motor Fibers
    B
    • 2nd smallest
    • 2nd slowest
    • Pre-ganglionic autonomic fibers
  15. Motor Fibers
    C
    • Smallest
    • Slowest
    • Postganglionic autonomic fibers
  16. Pathways to the Brain
    • Conscious Relay Pathways
    • Divergent Pathways
    • Unconscious Relay Pathways
  17. Consious Relay Pathways
    • Info about location and type of stimulation (modality) to cerebral cortex
    • "that's hot" "that hurts"
    • Discriminative
  18. Conscious Relay Pathways
    • Discriminative touch and conscious proprioception --> DC/ML --> Primary sensory area cerebral cortex
    • Discriminative pain and temp --> ST or ALS --> Primary sensory area cerebral cortex
  19. Divergent Pathways
    • Conscious (cerebral cortex) and unconscious (Brain stem and cerebellum) levels
    • Achy pain
  20. Divergent Pathways
    • Slow, achy pain -->Spinomesencephalic -->Midbrain
    • '' -->Spinoreticular --> Reticular formation
    • '' --> Spinolimbic --> amygdala, basal ganglia, many areas of cerebral cortex
  21. Unconscious Relay Pathways
    • Unconscious proprioceptive and other movement-related info to cerebellum
    • Walking - don't have to think about it
  22. Unconscious Relay Pathways
    • Movement-related info -->Spinocerebellar -->Cerebellum
    • '' -->Cuneocerebellar --> Cerebellum
  23. 4 types of somatosensation in Conscious Relay Pathways
    • Touch and Proprioception = DC/ML
    • Pain and Temp = Spinothalamic or ALS
  24. Dorsal Column/ Medial Lemniscus
    • Rapidly conducting
    • Large diameter
    • Myelinated
    • Discriminative touch - locialization and 2-point test
    • Conscious proprioception
  25. Stereognosis
    • ability to use touch and proprioceptive info to identify an object
    • ex. identifying a key in your hand without looking at it
  26. DC/ML
    • Recognizes objects by touch
    • Controls find movements
    • Smooth movements
  27. Receptors in DC/ML
    Muscle spindles Ia and Ib, Golgi Tendon Organs, Pacinian Corpuscles, Merkel's Cells, and Meissner's Corpuscles
  28. DC/ML
    First Order Neuron
    Dorsal Root Ganglion --> Fasciculus gracilis (legs) or Fasciculus cuneatus (arms) --> Nucleus gracilis (leg) or Nucleus cuneatus (arm)
  29. DC/ML
    Second Order Neuron
    Nucleus gracilis/Nucleus cuneatus --> medial lemniscus (leg lateral and arm medial) -->synapse in Thalamus VPL
  30. DC/ML
    Third Order Neuron
    Thalamus (VPL) -->internal capsule --> Sensory Cortex
  31. DC/ML Trigeminal
    First Order Neuron
    Trigeminal ganglion -->Main sensory nucleus in pons
  32. DC/ML Trigeminal
    Second Order Neuron
    Main sensory nucleus in pons --> Trigeminal Lemniscus --> Thalamus VPM
  33. DC/ML Trigeminal
    Third Order Neuron
    Thalamus VPM --> Internal capsule --> Sensory cortex
  34. Astereognosis
    • Lesion to DC/ML
    • inability to recognize common objects by touch
  35. Injury to DC/ML
    • Loss of 2-point discrimination
    • Loss of vibratory sense
    • Positive Rhomberg Sign
  36. Anterolateral System (ALS)
    • slow-conducting
    • more-diffusely located than DC/ML
    • Nociception and temp
  37. Spinothalamic Tract
    • Temperature: hot in A-delta fibers/ cold in A-delta and C fibers
    • non-localizable course touch
  38. Spinothalamic Tract
    Fast pain
    • Spinothalamic
    • sharp pain activate A- delta fibers
  39. Spinothalamic Tract
    Slow Pain
    • burning pain, slow onset but persistent
    • Activate C fibers
  40. Spinothalamic Tract
    First Order Neuron
    Dorsal Root Ganglion --> Dorsolateral tract --> Dorsal horn
  41. Spinothalamic tract
    Second Order Neuron
    Dorsal horn --> Ant. white commissure --> thalamus VPL
  42. Spinothalamic tract
    Third Order Neuron
    Thalamus VPL --> Primary and secondary sensory cortex
  43. Spinothalamic Tract Trigeminal
    First order neuron
    Trigeminal ganglion --> Descending tract of trigeminal --> spinal nucleus
  44. Spinothalamic Tract Trigeminal
    Second order neuron
    Spinal nucleus --> cross in medulla --> Thalamus VPM
  45. Spinothalamic Tract Trigeminal
    Third order neuron
    Thalamus VPM --> Primary and Secondary sensory cortex
  46. Divergent pathways of Anterolateral Spinal Cord
    Spinomesencephalic tract
    • Nociceptive info to sup. colliculus and PAG
    • turn eyes and head toward stimulus
  47. Divergent pathways of Anterolateral Spinal Cord
    Spinoreticular tract
    • arousal, attention, sleep/wake cycles
    • alert when pain is present
  48. Divergent Pathways of Anterolateral spinal cord
    Spinolimbic tract
    slow pain to thalamus carried by C fibers
  49. Direct Pathways
    • Corticospinal and corticobulbar
    • Upper Motor Neurons: Cerebral Cortex --> spinal cord
    • Lower Motor Neurons: Cerebral Cortex --> Muscles
  50. Indirect Pathways
    • Rubrospinal and vestibulospinal tracts
    • Synapses in Brain stem, basal ganglia, thalamus, reticular formation, and cerebellum
  51. Motor System
    Decision --> Motor Planning areas --> Control circuits (cerebellum and basal ganglion) --> Descending motor tracts (pre-central gyrus) --> Lower Motor Neurons (to skeletal muscles)
  52. Descending Motor Tract
    • Primary Cortex (area 4) in Precentral gyrus
    • Right brain controls Left body
    • Performance of Muscle movements
    • Upper Motor Neurons - Corticospinal tract
    • More cortical area needed if more motor neurons
    • Ex. vocal cords, tongue, lips, fingers, thumb
  53. Motor Planning Areas - Association Areas
    • Premotor Area - trunk and girdle muscles; anticipatory postural adjustments
    • Supplementary motor area - Initiation of movement; Orientation planning; sequential movements (playing piano)
    • Broca's Area (area 44/45) - Programming of speech; Left side
    • Right side (like Broca's) - Planning nonverbals; Emotional gestures, tone of voice
  54. Lower Motor Neuron
    • Indirectly innervate skeletal muscle with ACh
    • Peripheral and Cranial Nerves
    • spinal cord (ventral horn) or brainstem --> skeletal muscles
  55. Types of Lower Motor Neuron
    • Gamma motor neuron - medium sized, myelinated
    • Alpha motor neuron - Large, Fast, myelinated
  56. Lesions to LMN
    • Flaccid paralysis - Loss of strength and tone
    • Areflexia or hyporeflexia - loss of reflexes
    • Atrophy
    • Denervation hypersensitivity - Fasciulations
  57. Fasciulations
    Involuntary contractions of muscles reacting to a small amount of ACh because nerves are damaged
  58. Upper Motor Neurons
    • Cerebral cortex or brain stem --> descending tracts --> LMN or interneurons of spinal cord
    • Always stay in CNS
  59. Lesions of UMN
    • Spastic paralysis - resists passive movements
    • Loss of distal extremity strength
    • Babinski sign
    • Hypertonia
    • Hyperreflexia
    • Clasp-knife phenomenon
  60. Medial UMNs
    • control posture and proximal movements
    • M. coricospinal tract
    • M. reticulospinal tract
    • M. and L. vesibulospinal tract
    • Tectospinal tract
  61. Lateral UMNs
    • direct distal limb movements and fine movements
    • L. corticospinal tract
    • rubrospinal tract
    • L. reticulospinal tract
  62. Corticospinal Tract (Lateral)
    • ability to activate individual muscles (finger)
    • Cortex --> post. limb of int. capsule --> cerebral peduncles, ant. pons, pyramids --> cross in pyramids --> LMNs in ventral horns
    • cranial nerves will synapse at specific motor nucleus
  63. Corticospinal tract (Medial)
    • controls posture and proximal movments
    • don't cross in medulla
  64. Tectospinal Tract
    • reflexively turns head toward sound or visual stimulus
    • superior colliculus of midbrain --> cervial spinal cord
  65. Medial Reticulospinal Tract
    • ipsilateral postural muscles and limb extensors
    • Pontine reticular formation --> spinal cord
  66. Medial Vestibulospinal Tract
    • Info about head movement and position from vestibular apparatus
    • Medial vestibular nucleus --> cervical and thoracic levels to LMNs to back muscles
  67. Lateral Vestibulospinal Tract
    • gravity info for vestibular apparatus
    • ipsilateral extensors and inhibit flexors (keeps us upright)
    • Lateral vestibular nucleus --> spinal cord
  68. Lateral Reticulospinal Tract
    • Activates flexors and inhibits extensors
    • Lateral reticular formation --> spinal cord
  69. Rubrospinal Tract
    • upper limb flexion
    • Red nucleus --> cervical and thoracic spinal cord
  70. Raphespinal spinal projection
    • located in pons --> dorsal horn of spinal cord
    • receive info from PAG
    • Reduce pain
  71. Locus ceruleus
    • Located in pons
    • Produces NE in CNS
    • Low NE - sleep
    • High NE - stress
    • if damaged, behavior or aggression problems

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview