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atrophy of the anterior pituitary due to a hemorrhage during labor
What are the 5 releasing hormones released from the Hypothalamus?
ADH and Oxytocin are produced by what nuclei in the hypothalamus?
- Supraoptic= ADH
3 Drugs used for Prolactinemia?
- Ergot Derived:
- 1. Bromocriptine
- 2. Pergolide
- 3. Carbergoline
Excess GH produces what in Adults?
Whats an example of entrapment neuropathy?
In a normal pt, glucose has what effect on GH?i
it decreases the release of GH
Measurement of what indicates high level os GH?
Somatostatin analog used in acromegaly, carcinoid, glucagonoma, gastrinoma?
Somatostatin has an inhibitory role in 2 places, what releases it?
- Hypothalamus--inhibits GH, TSH
- D cells of Pancreas and GI--Inhibit gastric, pepsinogen, pancreatic enzymes, gall bladder contraction, insulin and glucagon secretion
What are teh 4 best tx for pituitary adenoma?
- Radiation therapy
Growth Hormone receptor Antagonist for Gigantism?
3 strategies to attack osteoporosis?
- Raloxifene-estrogen agonist at bone, antagonist at endometrium
- Somatropin- GH agonist
GH used for dwarfism?
In a case of Hypo. anterior pituitarism, what hormone decreases first?
- GnRH--decreased sexual function
3 causes of Hypo-Ant. pituitarism?
- Post-Partum Hemorrhage
- Inflammatory (encephalitis, sarcoidosis)
- Pituitary apoplexy (hemorrhagic infact due to a pituitary adenoma)
How to diagnose GH deficiency?
How to diagnose ACTH deficiency?M
Metyrapone--inhibit formation of Cortisol-->increases ACTH release
In hypo-pituitarism, what is the 1st hormone to decrease?
Which one should be treated first?
- GnRH goes down first
- Should treat with cortisol*** always to maintain sugar and blood pressure
Which ADH receptor mediates vasoconstriction?
ADH V1 receptor acts on what kind of G protein?
Tx for Lithium Induced Nephrogenic DI?
What effect does lithium have on ur sodium level?
causes Hyponatremia bc it displaces it
What happens to sodium in Lithium induced DI?
Hypernatremia vs hyponatremia when there is high plasma levels of Lithium
2 Tx's for neurogenic DI?
Tx for Nephrogenic DI?
Conivaptan blocks which receptors?
What are the 4 Functions of PTH?
- increase Ca and phosphate resorption
- increase Ca reabsorption from DCT
- Increase Phosphoate excretion
- Increase 1 alpha hydroxylase so increase 1,25 OH2 Vitamin D calcitrol--increases Intestinal Ca absorption
What causes primary Hyperparathyrodism?
- Parathyroid adenoma
- Secondary--low ca leads to High PTH
What is the difference in terms of phosphate homeostasis with PTH and 1,25(OH2)D?
- PTH increases CA and decreases Phosphate absorption in kidney
- Vitamin D--increases CA and Phosphate reabsorption in intestine
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