Water that lies beneath the ground surface, filling in cracks and pores spaces within rock and soil.
What is Meteoric?
Water derived from the atmosphere (e.g. rain, snow, etc.)
What is magmatic (Juvenile)?
Water derived from molton material.
Whats is connate?
Water trapped in rock pore spaces at time of deposition.
What is Permeability?
The measure of a material's ability to tansmit a fluid (e.g., water and oil)
What is Aquifer?
A rock of sediment that transmits water easily.
What is Aquitard?
An impervous material that restricts groundwater movement.
What is Gravity?
The force of attraction that two bodies exert on each other that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of he distance from the centers of the two bodies.
What is Hydrostratic pressure?
The pressure exerted by the weight of the overlaying water.
What is Rates of movement?
Few inches/years to hundreds of feet/day (e.g., dyes radioactive tracers and saline solutions)
What is Groundwater zones?
Rock openings and voids that are filled partly with water and partly with air.
Zone of satuation?
All rock voids and openings are filled with water.
What is water table?
The upper surface of the zone of saturation.
What is perched water table?
A water table seperated from the main water table by an unsatuated zone.
What is Capillary Fringe?
Water rising in small openings from water table into the zone of saturation.
What is Stream?
The flow of water within a channel.
What is Losing stream?
A stream that loses water to the zone of saturation.
What is Gaining stream?
A stream that recieves water from the zone of saturation.
What is Lake?
A body of water that typically intersects the water table.
What is Spring?
A place where water flows naturally out of a rock and onto the land surface.
What is Swamp and marsh?
A wet area, where the water table is at or near the surface.
What is Topography?
The water table represents a subdued version of the topography.
What is Artesian well?
A well in which water rises above the aquifer.
What is Water well?
Productive wells that penetrate the water table.
What is Stratic level?
The water level before pumping begins.
What is Drawdown?
The distance that water level is lowered during pumping.
What is Cone of depression?
The inverted cone-shaped depression, caused by the lowering of water table in the vicinity of the well.
What is Dissolution?
The process by which rocks are dissolved by water.
What is Solution?
Usually slow but effective process of weathering and erosion in which rocks are dissolved by water.
What is Abration?
The grinding away of rock by friction and impact during transortation.
What is Cavern?
An underground cavity created by the solution of limestone.
What is Sinkhole?
A circular depression on the land surface that forms by the callapse of a cavern.
What is Stalactite?
An icicle-like deposit thats hangs from the ceiling of cavern.
What is Stalagmite?
A cone-shaped deposit that grows from the floor of a cavern.
What is Piller/column?
A deposit created with a stalacite and stalagmite join.
What is Geode?
Partly hallow, globelike body found in limestone or other cavernous rocks.
What is Concretion?
Hard, rounded mass that develops when a considerable amount of cementing material precipitates locally in a rock, often around an organic nucleus.
What is Petrified wood?
A material formed by the replacement of woody tissue by silicia from groundwater.
What is Dendrites?
Thin, branch-like films of iron and manganese oxide along rock surface (e.g., bedding planes).
What is Spring deposit?
Deposits found around the mouths of springs, geysers, etc.
What is Cement?
Material (e.g., SIO2 and CaCo3) deposited from groundwater that holds rock particles together.
What is Hot spring?
Hot or thermal springs, a spring with a water tempature warmer than human body tempature.
What is Geyser?
A type of of hot spring that periodically erupts hot water and stream.
What is Geothermal energy?
Energy prodeuced by hardnessing natural occuring steam and hot water.