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  1. classification
    in biology, the ordering of organisms into categories such as orders families and genera to show evolutionary relationships
  2. metazoa
    they are multicellular animals with differentiated tissues,a major division of the animal kingdom
  3. chordata
    the phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates
  4. vertebrate
    animals with segmented bony spinal columns, includes fishes amphibians reptiles
  5. homologies
    similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor
  6. analogies
    similarities between organisms strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent
  7. homoplasy
    the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms
  8. evolutionary systematic
    a traditional approach to classification in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time analysis of homologous characters
  9. cladistics
    an approach to classification that attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters
  10. ancestral or primitive
    referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups that diverged after the character first appeared
  11. derived or modified
    referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus diagnostic particular evolutionary lineages
  12. clade
    a group of organisms sharing a common ancestor
  13. theropods
    small to medium sized ground living dinosaurs, dated to approx 150mya and thought to be related to birds
  14. phylogenetic tree
    a chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics
  15. cladogram
    a chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis. its based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters.
  16. biological species concept
    a depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups
  17. speciation
    the process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species
  18. recognition species concept
    a depiction of species in which the key aspect is the ability of individuals to identify members if their own species to mate
  19. ecological species concept
    the concept that a species is a group of organisms exploiting a single niche.
  20. allopatric species
    living in different areas
  21. sexual dimorphism
    differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species.
  22. intraspecific variation
    refers to variation seen within the same species
  23. interspecific variation
    refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species
  24. paleospecies
    species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a large time span
  25. genus
    a group of closely related species
  26. geological time scale
    the organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs, commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists
  27. continental drift
    the movement of continents on sliding plates of the earths surface.
  28. ecological niches
    the position of a species within its physical and biological environments
  29. epochs
    categories of the geological time scale, subdivisions of periods
  30. eras
    eras include periods, periods are broken down into epochs, main eras: paleozoic,mesozoic and cenozoic
  31. evolutionary pulse
    by elisabeth vrba, suggests that abrupt climate change has drive brief pulses of evolution and extinction in animals ranging from antelopes to early human ancestors
  32. viviparous
    producing living young not eggs
  33. heterodont
    having different kinds of teeth
  34. homodont
    having the same teeth
  35. endothermic
    able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
  36. homeothermic
    an organism that has a constant body temperature n is largely independent of the temperature of its surroundings
  37. adaptive radiation
    a rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches/
  38. punctuated equilibrium (interrupted long period of no change)
    The theory that new species evolve suddenly over relatively short periods of time (a few hundred to a thousand years), followed by longer periods in which little genetic change occurs. Punctuated equilibrium is a revision of Darwin's theory that evolution takes place at a slow, constant rate over millions of years.
  39. gradualist evolution
    phyletic gradualism, thaat change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages
  40. taxonomy
    classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
  41. taphonomy
    the study of how bones and other matierlas come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils
  42. prosimians
    grouping of mammals defined as being primates, but not monkeys or apes. They include, among others, lemurs, bushbabies, and tarsiers.
  43. anthropoids
    members of the primate infraorder Anthropoidea, which includes monkeys, apes, and humans
  44. specialized morphology
    horses and cattle have undergone a reduction in the number of digits from the ancestral pattern of five to one or two
  45. prehensility
    adapted for seizing, grasping or taking hold of something
  46. vision reliant
    corresponding reduction of the entire olfactory apparatus has also resulted in decreased size of the snout this increases reliance on vision
  47. diurnal
    active during the day
  48. nocturnal
    active during the night
  49. sensory modalities
    different forms of sensation ( taste, touch, pain etc.)
  50. intelligence
    A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience
  51. arboreal hypothesis
    based on the fact that animals such as squirrels are also arboreal, yet they havent evolved primate-like adaptations such as prehensile hands or forward-facing eyes
  52. visual predation hypothesis
    small mammals ate insects on the forest floor which made them develop hands , and they had to have good vision because they needed to detect insects, these features could becomes good to climb trees and jump from branch to branch
  53. arboreal
    tree living, adapted to life in trees
  54. terrestrial
    Of or on the ground, of the habitat of a plant, on land as opposed to in water, or on the ground as opposed to on another plant.
  55. adaptive niche
    an orgranism's entire way of life: what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predators etc.
  56. midline- sagittal
    a plane that separates the left and right portions of the body
  57. dentition
    the number and kind of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth
  58. cusps
    the bumps on the chewing surface of premolars and molars
  59. sectorial pre-molar
    Tooth with an elliptical or circular cross-section and a single cusp; in anthropoids, generally referring to the lower anterior premolar wich wears against the overlapping upper canine, creating a honing facet on the premolar's mesial surface from cutting against the distal edge of the canine in a scissors-like action.
  60. incisor
    used for biting and cuting the four front teeth
  61. canine
    used for biting and cuting behind the incisors
  62. premolar
    used for chewing and grinding, humans have 2 nw monkeys have3
  63. molar
    used for chewing and grinding humans have 3 as well as nw monkeys
  64. dental formula
    numerical device that indicates the number of each type of tooth in each side of the upper and lower jaws
  65. caninization
    the evolutionary origin of canines
  66. molarization
    the evolutionary origin of molars
  67. trigon cuspid
    three main cusps of the the upper molars, the main cusp was called the protocone and the other two are paracone and metacone
  68. bilophodonty cuspid
    referring to molars that have four cusps oriented in two parallel rows resembling ridges, or "lophs".
  69. Y-5 cuspid
    a cusp pattern in lower molars in which there are five main cusps separated by grooves, and the mesiolingual and distobuccal cusps touch.
  70. diastema
    the space between two teeth
  71. dental comb
    This dental comb is composed of the lower canines and lower incisors compressed from side to side and slanted forward; the most specialized dental combs
  72. procumbent incisors
    refers to incisors that project more in the horizontal than in the vertical plane
  73. dental quadrant
    Each dental arch is divided into a right and a left quadrant
  74. brachiation
    arboreal locomotion in which the animal progresses below branches by using only the forelimbs
  75. Macaques
    Macaques are native to Asia and Northern Africa,Macaques live in many different habitats across the globe, making them the most widely distributed genus of nonhuman primates, used to reasearch AIDS
  76. lemurs
    Any of several small arboreal, mostly nocturnal primates chiefly of the family Lemuridae of Madagascar and adjacent islands, having large eyes, a long slim muzzle, and a long tail.
  77. lorises
    Any of several small, slow-moving, nocturnal prosimian primates of the genera Loris and Nycticebus of tropical Asia, having dense woolly fur, large eyes, and a vestigial tail.
  78. tarsiers
    Any of several small nocturnal arboreal primates of the genus Tarsius, of the East Indies and the Philippines, having large round eyes, a long tail, and long fingers and toes tipped with soft disklike pads
  79. Platyrrhini
    new world monkeys that have flat noses
  80. ceboids
    its a kind of monkey
  81. callitrichids
    includes marmosets and tamarins, NW monkey. They dont have a prehensil tail, and they are diurnal
  82. Atelids
    Native to forested regions of Mexico, Central and South America, these medium to large-sized monkeys. Atelids are arboreal, diurnal omnivores.
  83. Cebids
    NW -spider and capuchin monkeys, frugivores
  84. Catarrhini
    • OW-apes, and humans, they have hooked nose,
    • catarrhine primate, such as a gorilla.
  85. cercopithecines
    OW- baboons , macaques they are diurnal and live in social groups
  86. colobines
    from cercopithecidae,do not have opposable thumbs.
  87. hominoids
    no tail, Y-5 pattern, enlarged incisors, large brains
  88. cercopithicoids
    narrow nose, smaller brain, have tails,molars are bilophodont
  89. cercopithecines
    OW - from the catarrhini family, they are small compared to the colobines
  90. colobines
    OW from catarrhini n they are the big ones compared to the cercopithecines.
  91. hominoids
    apes and humans classified together
  92. hylobatids
    part of the hominoid family and they are related part of the gibbons and they are monogomous
  93. pongids
    its a chimp, gorilla and an orangutan
  94. hominids
    humans, they include basals , australopithecines, and hominins
  95. rhinarium
    the hairless moist nose of some mammals
  96. ischial callosities
    harden skin on OW monkeys buttocks
  97. estrus
    when a female is in heat, excluding humans
  98. frugivorous
    monkeys that eat 70% like squirrel monkeys which are cebids
  99. gumiovorous
    monkeys that eat sap
  100. foliovorous
    monkeys mainly leaves like gorillas
  101. insectivorous
    eat mainly insects like the aye ayes
  102. omnivores
    all primates are omnivores
  103. humerus
    the upper arm bone
  104. radius
    one of the two large bones of the forearm the other one is the ulna
  105. ulna
    the other largest bone of the forearm
  106. carpals
    wrist bones
  107. metacarpals
    any of the bones in the hands, between phalanges and carpals
  108. phalanges
    finger or toe bones
  109. femur
    the longest strongest bone in the body between the pelvis and the knee
  110. tibia
    the inner and larger of the two bones between the knee and ankle
  111. fibula
    the inner and smaller of the two bones between the knee and ankle
  112. tarsal
    bones in the ankle
  113. metatarsal
    bone between the phalanges and tarsals in the foot
  114. behavior
    response to external or internal stimuli
  115. free-ranging
    animals that are allowed to roam around freely
  116. ecology
    the relationship between living organisms due to respect that they have for each other and their natural environment
  117. behavioral ecology
    the study of how animals act and adapt to their environment according to their evolutionary basis
  118. plasticity
    the brains ability to change itself
  119. metabolism
  120. metabolism
    the chemical process within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use
  121. philopatric
    always stays in their natal group and never leaves even as an adult, most of the time its a female
  122. life history traits
    characteristics and developmental stages that influnce rates of reproduction
  123. stratigies
    behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection because they are advantageous to animals that perform them
  124. sympatric
    two or more species living in the same area
  125. home range
    the place where an animal or social group lives for a year or their whole life
  126. competition
    competition for resources
  127. dominance hierarchies
    systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another
  128. communication
    any act that conveys information in the form of a message to another individual
  129. autonomic
    pertaining to physiological responses that arent under voluntary control
  130. displays
    sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states
  131. ritualized behavior
    behaviors removed from their original context and sometimes exaggerated to convey information
  132. affiliative
    behaviors that reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion, ex: grooming
  133. grooming
    picking through fur to remove dirt parasites and other materials that may be present
  134. reproductive strategies
    the complex behavioral patterns that contributes to invdividual reproductive success
  135. K-selected
    an adaptive strategy whereby individuals reproduce relatively few offspring in whom they invest increased parental care
  136. r-selected
    having more offspring reducing parental care
  137. sexual selection
    competition for mates within their own species
  138. polyandry
    where a female mates with multiple males, marmosets and tamarins
  139. polygyny
    when a male has more than one female to mate with
  140. monogamy
    mating only with one other partner, like getting married
  141. solitare
    living in solitude
  142. multi-male/female
    where several males and females are reproductively active
  143. alloparenting
    a common behavior in many primates species whereby individuals other than the parents hold, carry,and in general interact with infants
  144. allometry
    how anatomical structures change through development
  145. encephalization
    used to estimate the expected brain size for any give body size
  146. natal group
    the group in which animals are born and raised
  147. cortex
    the layer that covers the cerebral hemisphere
  148. neocortex
    the evolved portions of the cortex that are involved with higher mental functions that inegrate incoming information from different sensory organs
  149. lateralized
    localized at one side of the brain, it is the functional specialization of the hemispheres of the brain for specific activities
  150. motor cortex
    the areas of the brain's cortex involved with movement
  151. anthropocentric
    emphasizing the importance of humans over everything else
  152. territories
    the portion of a home range actively defended against intrusion
  153. core area
    in a home land, the area that has more food supplies, and this area is highly defended
  154. altruism
    behavior that benefits another individual at some potential risk or cost to one self
  155. biological continuum
    when expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories
  156. natural selection
    genetic change in the frequencies of certain traits due to differential reproductive success
  157. group selection
    Selection for traits that would be beneficial to a population at the expense of the individual possessing the trait.
  158. epi-genetics
    changed in phenotype that are not related to changes in DNA
  159. gene flow
    exchange of genes between populations
  160. genetic drift
    evolutionary changes that are produced by random factors in small populations
  161. mutation
    change in DNA
  162. crania
    the skull, the part enclosing the brain
  163. post-crania
    referring to all parts of the skeleton besides the skull on quadrapeds
  164. occipital
    the back part of the brain
  165. sphenoid
    butterfly shaped bone at the base of the skull
  166. frontal
    front part of the skull
  167. mandible
    the lower jaw bone
  168. maxilla
    the upper jaw bone
  169. parietals
    the upper posterior wall of the head
  170. temporals
    temples of the head
  171. zygomatics
    cheek bones
  172. facial bones
    frontal bone, parietal bone,sphenoid,maxilla, mandible,temporal, nasal,zygomatic
  173. nasal bones
    the bridge and two oblong bones
  174. lambdoidal suture
    the line separating the occipital and parietal bone
  175. coronal suture
    the line separating the frontal bone and the parietal
  176. sagittal suture
    line separating the two parietal bones
  177. basal suture
    all the bones in a skeleton except the skull on a quadrupedal
  178. meitopic suture
    the line dividing the two frontal bones
  179. orbits
    the eye socket
  180. mastoids
    process of the temportal bone behind the ear, breast shaped
  181. zygomatic arches
    cheek bone
  182. occipital protuberance
    the point of intersection of the four divisions of the occiptal bone
  183. mental eminence
  184. canine fossa
    a large n deep depression gives orgin to caninus
  185. bridge species
  186. nasal bridge
    bony part of the nose overlaying the nasal bones
  187. nasal spine
    a bone that sticks out at the base of the nose
  188. nasal aperture
    the heart shaped opening where our nose goes
  189. foramen magnum
    the large hole in the occiptal bone
  190. foramen magnum location
    occipital bone
  191. prognathism
    when one or both jaws project forward
  192. cervical vertebrae
    the vertebrae immediately under the skull
  193. thoracic vertebrae
    the vertebrae that carry the ribs
  194. lumbar vertebrae
    the largest section of the movable part of the vertebrae
  195. sacral vertebrae
    there are five sacral bones and they are located between the lumbar vertebrae and coccyx
  196. caudal vertebrae
    Any of the bones or cartilaginous segments forming the spinal column
  197. thorax
    is a division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen.
  198. ribs
    long curved bones that form the rib cage
  199. sternum
  200. clavicle
    collar bone is a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum
  201. scapula
    the shoulder blade, the bone that connects the humerus with the clavicle
  202. glenoid cavity
    the socket in the head of the scapula that receives the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint
  203. pelvis
    contains a large compound bone structure at the base of the spine, which is connected with the legs or rear limbs.
  204. ilium
    uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis
  205. ischium
    forms the lower and back part of the hip bone
  206. pubis
    the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis —called also pubic bone
  207. acetabulum
    a concave surface of the pelvis. The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint
  208. sub-pubic angle
    is the angle in the human body formed at pubic arch
  209. greater sciatic notch
    Above the ischial spine is a large notch, the greater sciatic notch, converted into a foramen by the sacrospinous ligament.
  210. obturator foramen
    is the hole created by the ischiumand pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and muscles pass.
  211. precambrian
    is the name which describes the large span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale
  212. cambrian
    543 to 490 Million Years Ago Animals with hard-shells appeared in great numbers for the first time during the Cambrian. The continents were flooded by shallow seas. The supercontinent of Gondwana had just formed and was located near the South Pole.
  213. paleozoic
    542 to 251 million years ago. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, and is subdivided into six geologic periods; from oldest to youngest they are: the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian,Carboniferous, and Permian.
  214. mezazoic
    250 million years ago to about 65 million years ago. Age of Reptiles because reptiles, namely dinosaurs, were the dominant terrestrial and marine vertebrates of the time
  215. cenozoic
    65.5 mya to the the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras and covers the period from 65.5 mya to the present. Age of Mammal
  216. paleocene
    65.5 to 56 million years ago first epoch of Palaeogene Period
  217. oligocene
    is a geologic epoch of thePaleogene Period and extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present
  218. eocene
    54.8 to 33.7 mya, is part of the Tertiary Period in the Cenozoic Era
  219. miocene
    is a geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.332mya
  220. pliocene
    is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 2.588[2] million years before present. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era
  221. pleistocene
    is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations
  222. holocene
    is a geological epoch which began at the end of the Pleistocene
  223. pangea continent
    a supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before the component continents were separated into their current configuration.
  224. gondwana continent
    was the southernmost of two supercontinents (the other being Laurasia) that later became parts of the Pangaea supercontinent.
  225. laurasia continent
    was the northernmost of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent from approximately 510 to 200 million years ago (Mya). It separated from Gondwana 200 to 180 Mya (the late Triassic era) during the breakup of Pangaea, drifting further north after the split.
  226. present 7 continents
    they are (from largest in size to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
  227. age of fishes
    The Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era lasted from 417 million years ago to 354 million years ago. It is named for Devon, England where the old red sandstone of the Devonian was first studied.
  228. age of reptiles
    The origin of flowering plants, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals. mesozoic era.
  229. age of birds and mammals
    The diversification of flowering plants, insects, birds and mammals, and the appearance of humans. cenozoic era.
  230. biological-behavioral species
    The biological species concept defines a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature, not according to similarity of appearance. Although appearance is helpful in identifying species, it does not define species.
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