in biology, the ordering of organisms into categories such as orders families and genera to show evolutionary relationships
they are multicellular animals with differentiated tissues,a major division of the animal kingdom
the phylum of the animal kingdom that includes vertebrates
animals with segmented bony spinal columns, includes fishes amphibians reptiles
similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor
similarities between organisms strictly on common function with no assumed common evolutionary descent
the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms
a traditional approach to classification in which presumed ancestors and descendants are traced in time analysis of homologous characters
an approach to classification that attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters
ancestral or primitive
referring to characters inherited by a group of organisms from a remote ancestor and thus not diagnostic of groups that diverged after the character first appeared
derived or modified
referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition and thus diagnostic particular evolutionary lineages
a group of organisms sharing a common ancestor
small to medium sized ground living dinosaurs, dated to approx 150mya and thought to be related to birds
a chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by evolutionary systematics
a chart showing evolutionary relationships as determined by cladistic analysis. its based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters.
biological species concept
a depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups
the process by which a new species evolves from an earlier species
recognition species concept
a depiction of species in which the key aspect is the ability of individuals to identify members if their own species to mate
ecological species concept
the concept that a species is a group of organisms exploiting a single niche.
living in different areas
differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species.
refers to variation seen within the same species
refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species
species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a large time span
a group of closely related species
geological time scale
the organization of earth history into eras, periods, and epochs, commonly used by geologists and paleoanthropologists
the movement of continents on sliding plates of the earths surface.
the position of a species within its physical and biological environments
categories of the geological time scale, subdivisions of periods
eras include periods, periods are broken down into epochs, main eras: paleozoic,mesozoic and cenozoic
by elisabeth vrba, suggests that abrupt climate change has drive brief pulses of evolution and extinction in animals ranging from antelopes to early human ancestors
producing living young not eggs
having different kinds of teeth
having the same teeth
able to maintain internal body temperature by producing energy through metabolic processes within cells
an organism that has a constant body temperature n is largely independent of the temperature of its surroundings
a rapid expansion and diversification of life forms into new ecological niches/
punctuated equilibrium (interrupted long period of no change)
The theory that new species evolve suddenly over relatively short periods of time (a few hundred to a thousand years), followed by longer periods in which little genetic change occurs. Punctuated equilibrium is a revision of Darwin's theory that evolution takes place at a slow, constant rate over millions of years.
phyletic gradualism, thaat change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages
classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships
the study of how bones and other matierlas come to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils
grouping of mammals defined as being primates, but not monkeys or apes. They include, among others, lemurs, bushbabies, and tarsiers.
members of the primate infraorder Anthropoidea, which includes monkeys, apes, and humans
horses and cattle have undergone a reduction in the number of digits from the ancestral pattern of five to one or two
adapted for seizing, grasping or taking hold of something
corresponding reduction of the entire olfactory apparatus has also resulted in decreased size of the snout this increases reliance on vision
active during the day
active during the night
different forms of sensation ( taste, touch, pain etc.)
A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience
based on the fact that animals such as squirrels are also arboreal, yet they havent evolved primate-like adaptations such as prehensile hands or forward-facing eyes
visual predation hypothesis
small mammals ate insects on the forest floor which made them develop hands , and they had to have good vision because they needed to detect insects, these features could becomes good to climb trees and jump from branch to branch
tree living, adapted to life in trees
Of or on the ground, of the habitat of a plant, on land as opposed to in water, or on the ground as opposed to on another plant.
an orgranism's entire way of life: what it eats, how it gets food, how it avoids predators etc.
a plane that separates the left and right portions of the body
the number and kind of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth
the bumps on the chewing surface of premolars and molars
Tooth with an elliptical or circular cross-section and a single cusp; in anthropoids, generally referring to the lower anterior premolar wich wears against the overlapping upper canine, creating a honing facet on the premolar's mesial surface from cutting against the distal edge of the canine in a scissors-like action.
used for biting and cuting the four front teeth
used for biting and cuting behind the incisors
used for chewing and grinding, humans have 2 nw monkeys have3
used for chewing and grinding humans have 3 as well as nw monkeys
numerical device that indicates the number of each type of tooth in each side of the upper and lower jaws
the evolutionary origin of canines
the evolutionary origin of molars
three main cusps of the the upper molars, the main cusp was called the protocone and the other two are paracone and metacone
referring to molars that have four cusps oriented in two parallel rows resembling ridges, or "lophs".
a cusp pattern in lower molars in which there are five main cusps separated by grooves, and the mesiolingual and distobuccal cusps touch.
the space between two teeth
This dental comb is composed of the lower canines and lower incisors compressed from side to side and slanted forward; the most specialized dental combs
refers to incisors that project more in the horizontal than in the vertical plane
Each dental arch is divided into a right and a left quadrant
arboreal locomotion in which the animal progresses below branches by using only the forelimbs
Macaques are native to Asia and Northern Africa,Macaques live in many different habitats across the globe, making them the most widely distributed genus of nonhuman primates, used to reasearch AIDS
Any of several small arboreal, mostly nocturnal primates chiefly of the family Lemuridae of Madagascar and adjacent islands, having large eyes, a long slim muzzle, and a long tail.
Any of several small, slow-moving, nocturnal prosimian primates of the genera Loris and Nycticebus of tropical Asia, having dense woolly fur, large eyes, and a vestigial tail.
Any of several small nocturnal arboreal primates of the genus Tarsius, of the East Indies and the Philippines, having large round eyes, a long tail, and long fingers and toes tipped with soft disklike pads
new world monkeys that have flat noses
its a kind of monkey
includes marmosets and tamarins, NW monkey. They dont have a prehensil tail, and they are diurnal
Native to forested regions of Mexico, Central and South America, these medium to large-sized monkeys. Atelids are arboreal, diurnal omnivores.
NW -spider and capuchin monkeys, frugivores
OW-apes, and humans, they have hooked nose,
catarrhine primate, such as a gorilla.
OW- baboons , macaques they are diurnal and live in social groups
from cercopithecidae,do not have opposable thumbs.
no tail, Y-5 pattern, enlarged incisors, large brains
narrow nose, smaller brain, have tails,molars are bilophodont
OW - from the catarrhini family, they are small compared to the colobines
OW from catarrhini n they are the big ones compared to the cercopithecines.
apes and humans classified together
part of the hominoid family and they are related part of the gibbons and they are monogomous
its a chimp, gorilla and an orangutan
humans, they include basals , australopithecines, and hominins
the hairless moist nose of some mammals
harden skin on OW monkeys buttocks
when a female is in heat, excluding humans
monkeys that eat 70% like squirrel monkeys which are cebids
monkeys that eat sap
monkeys mainly leaves like gorillas
eat mainly insects like the aye ayes
all primates are omnivores
the upper arm bone
one of the two large bones of the forearm the other one is the ulna
the other largest bone of the forearm
any of the bones in the hands, between phalanges and carpals
finger or toe bones
the longest strongest bone in the body between the pelvis and the knee
the inner and larger of the two bones between the knee and ankle
the inner and smaller of the two bones between the knee and ankle
bones in the ankle
bone between the phalanges and tarsals in the foot
response to external or internal stimuli
animals that are allowed to roam around freely
the relationship between living organisms due to respect that they have for each other and their natural environment
the study of how animals act and adapt to their environment according to their evolutionary basis
the brains ability to change itself
the chemical process within cells that break down nutrients and release energy for the body to use
always stays in their natal group and never leaves even as an adult, most of the time its a female
life history traits
characteristics and developmental stages that influnce rates of reproduction
behavioral complexes that have been favored by natural selection because they are advantageous to animals that perform them
two or more species living in the same area
the place where an animal or social group lives for a year or their whole life
competition for resources
systems of social organization wherein individuals within a group are ranked relative to one another
any act that conveys information in the form of a message to another individual
pertaining to physiological responses that arent under voluntary control
sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states
behaviors removed from their original context and sometimes exaggerated to convey information
behaviors that reinforce social bonds and promote group cohesion, ex: grooming
picking through fur to remove dirt parasites and other materials that may be present
the complex behavioral patterns that contributes to invdividual reproductive success
an adaptive strategy whereby individuals reproduce relatively few offspring in whom they invest increased parental care
having more offspring reducing parental care
competition for mates within their own species
where a female mates with multiple males, marmosets and tamarins
when a male has more than one female to mate with
mating only with one other partner, like getting married
living in solitude
where several males and females are reproductively active
a common behavior in many primates species whereby individuals other than the parents hold, carry,and in general interact with infants
how anatomical structures change through development
used to estimate the expected brain size for any give body size
the group in which animals are born and raised
the layer that covers the cerebral hemisphere
the evolved portions of the cortex that are involved with higher mental functions that inegrate incoming information from different sensory organs
localized at one side of the brain, it is the functional specialization of the hemispheres of the brain for specific activities
the areas of the brain's cortex involved with movement
emphasizing the importance of humans over everything else
the portion of a home range actively defended against intrusion
in a home land, the area that has more food supplies, and this area is highly defended
behavior that benefits another individual at some potential risk or cost to one self
when expressions of a phenomenon continuously grade into one another so that there are no discrete categories
genetic change in the frequencies of certain traits due to differential reproductive success
Selection for traits that would be beneficial to a population at the expense of the individual possessing the trait.
changed in phenotype that are not related to changes in DNA
exchange of genes between populations
evolutionary changes that are produced by random factors in small populations
change in DNA
the skull, the part enclosing the brain
referring to all parts of the skeleton besides the skull on quadrapeds
the line separating the occipital and parietal bone
the line separating the frontal bone and the parietal
line separating the two parietal bones
all the bones in a skeleton except the skull on a quadrupedal
the line dividing the two frontal bones
the eye socket
process of the temportal bone behind the ear, breast shaped
the point of intersection of the four divisions of the occiptal bone
a large n deep depression gives orgin to caninus
bony part of the nose overlaying the nasal bones
a bone that sticks out at the base of the nose
the heart shaped opening where our nose goes
the large hole in the occiptal bone
foramen magnum location
when one or both jaws project forward
the vertebrae immediately under the skull
the vertebrae that carry the ribs
the largest section of the movable part of the vertebrae
there are five sacral bones and they are located between the lumbar vertebrae and coccyx
Any of the bones or cartilaginous segments forming the spinal column
is a division of an animal's body that lies between the head and the abdomen.
long curved bones that form the rib cage
collar bone is a long bone of short length that serves as a strut between the scapula and the sternum
the shoulder blade, the bone that connects the humerus with the clavicle
the socket in the head of the scapula that receives the head of the humerus to form the shoulder joint
contains a large compound bone structure at the base of the spine, which is connected with the legs or rear limbs.
uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis
forms the lower and back part of the hip bone
the ventral and anterior of the three principal bones composing either half of the pelvis —called also pubic bone
a concave surface of the pelvis. The head of the femur meets with the pelvis at the acetabulum, forming the hip joint
is the angle in the human body formed at pubic arch
greater sciatic notch
Above the ischial spine is a large notch, the greater sciatic notch, converted into a foramen by the sacrospinous ligament.
is the hole created by the ischiumand pubis bones of the pelvis through which nerves and muscles pass.
is the name which describes the large span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale
543 to 490 Million Years Ago Animals with hard-shells appeared in great numbers for the first time during the Cambrian. The continents were flooded by shallow seas. The supercontinent of Gondwana had just formed and was located near the South Pole.
542 to 251 million years ago. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, and is subdivided into six geologic periods; from oldest to youngest they are: the Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian,Carboniferous, and Permian.
250 million years ago to about 65 million years ago. Age of Reptiles because reptiles, namely dinosaurs, were the dominant terrestrial and marine vertebrates of the time
65.5 mya to the present.is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras and covers the period from 65.5 mya to the present. Age of Mammal
65.5 to 56 million years ago first epoch of Palaeogene Period
is a geologic epoch of thePaleogene Period and extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present
54.8 to 33.7 mya, is part of the Tertiary Period in the Cenozoic Era
is a geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.332mya
is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.332 million to 2.588 million years before present. It is the second and youngest epoch of the Neogene Period in the Cenozoic Era
is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations
is a geological epoch which began at the end of the Pleistocene
a supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before the component continents were separated into their current configuration.
was the southernmost of two supercontinents (the other being Laurasia) that later became parts of the Pangaea supercontinent.
was the northernmost of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent from approximately 510 to 200 million years ago (Mya). It separated from Gondwana 200 to 180 Mya (the late Triassic era) during the breakup of Pangaea, drifting further north after the split.
present 7 continents
they are (from largest in size to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.
age of fishes
The Devonian Period of the Paleozoic Era lasted from 417 million years ago to 354 million years ago. It is named for Devon, England where the old red sandstone of the Devonian was first studied.
age of reptiles
The origin of flowering plants, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals. mesozoic era.
age of birds and mammals
The diversification of flowering plants, insects, birds and mammals, and the appearance of humans. cenozoic era.
The biological species concept defines a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature, not according to similarity of appearance. Although appearance is helpful in identifying species, it does not define species.