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Types of groups
(formal, informal, command, task , interest, friendship)
Formal- designated work group dfined by an organizations structure
INFORMAL- A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; such a group appears in response to the need for social contact
COMMAND-A group composed of the indiviuals who report directly to a given manager
TASK- People working together to a complete a job task
INTEREST-people working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned
FRIENDSHIP- peole brought together because they share on or more common characterisitcs
FIVE STAGE MODEL
forming- the first stage in group development, characeterized by uncertainty
storming- the second stage in group development characterized by intragroup conflict
Norming- the third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness
Performin- fourth stage in group development , during whihc the group is fully functional
adjourning- the final stage in group development for temp groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
punctuated equilibrium model
- 1. their first meeting sets the groups direction
- 2. this first phase of group activity is one of inertia
- 3. a transition takes place at the end of this phase , which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its alloted time
- 4. A transition initates major changes
- 5. a second phase of inertia follows the transition
- 6. the groups last meeting is characterized by makedly accelerated activity.
role perception- the way we believe we should act
role expectations- are the way others believe you should act in a given context.
an unwriteen agreement that exists between employees and employers.
- What happens when role expectations implied in the psychological contact are not met?
- IF MANAGAMENT IS DERELICT IN KEEPING ITS PART OF THE BARGAIN, WE CAN EXPECT NEGATIVE REPRRUCSSIONS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION.
Zimbardos (stanford ) prison experiment
- Philip Zimbardo and his associates
- created a prison in the basement of the stanford psychology building.
- hired at 15 dollars a day two dozen emotionally stable student randomly assigned.
- stopped after 6 days
conformity can have on an individual members judgement was demonstrated in a now classic studies by Solomon Asch.
Strengths of Group Decision Making
- Groups generate more complete info and knowledge. several individuals groups bring more input as well
- more approaches
- more alternatives
- increased acceptance of a solution.
- increase diversity views
- more acceptance of solution
Weaknesses of decision making; groupthink/groupshift
- groups typically take more time to reach a solution
- conformity pressure
- group decision can be dominatedby one or few members
- ambigious responsibility
- we can view group polarization as a special case of groupthink.
- (pg 298)