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Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum)
Uses force, the threat of force, or some other unpleasant backlash to make audience accept a conclusion.
The genetic fallacy is the claim that because an idea, product, or person must be wrong because of its origin.
Ex: "That car was made in Japan!"
closely related to argumentum ad hominem
Argumentum Ad Hominem
- Attacking or praising the people who make an argument rather than discussing the argument itself.
- Two subcategories:
- abusive: to argue that proposals, assertions, or arguments must be false or dangerousbecause they originate with atheists, Christians, Communists (or any other group) is fallacious.Comes from irrational psychological transference rather than from an appeal to evidence or logic concerning the issue at hand.
To argue that oppenents should accept or refute an argument only because of circumstances in their lives.
Argumentum Ad populum (Argument to the People)
- Using an appeal to popular assent, often by arousing feelings and enthusiasm of the multitude rather than building an argument.
- Three Basic Approaches:Bandwagon: "Everybody is doing it". since the majority of people believe it then it must be true or it's the best.
- Patriotic: asserts that a certain stance is true or correct because it is somehow patriotic and those who disagree are somehow unpatriotic
- Snob: "all the best people are doing it"
Argumentum ad Traditio (Argument to Tradition)
A premise must be true because people have always believed it or done it
Argumentum ad Verecundium ( Appeal to Authority
Appeal to an improper authority suchas a famous person or a source that may not be reliable. Attempts to capitalize upon feelings or respect