Test #3

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  2. 3 types of muscle tissues; location(s), function(s)
    • A. skeletal muscle
    • location: skeletal muscle attached to bones
    • function(s): movement of bones at joints, maintenance of posture, propel body fluids, generate heat, assist movement
    • - contract and relaxes relatively rapidly
    • - voluntary
    • B. smooth muscle
    • location: walls of hallow organs
    • function(s): movement of walls of hollow organs, peristalsis, vasoconstriction
    • -contracts and relaxes relatively slowly, sometime self-exciting, rhythmic
    • -involuntary
    • C. cardiac muscle
    • location: walls of heart
    • function(s): pumping action of the heart
    • -network of fibers contracts a unit, self-exciting, rhythmic, remains refractory until contraction ends
  3. Muscle fatigue, lactic acid buildup, oxygen debt and their relationship
    muscle fatigue - muscle becomes tired where it can no longer contract or/and relax

    Muscle fatigue occurs when there is not enough oxygen (oxygen debt) for cells to operate at maximum ability, (generator mode) undergo anaerobic respiration, the major product lactic acid builds up (lactic acid buildup) causing immense pain and a burning sensation (muscle fatigue)
  4. protein that make up muscle- actin and myosin
    • protein actin- thin filaments
    • topomyosin
    • troponin

    protein myosin- thick filaments
  5. functions of bone/skeletal system
    framework, protect, store salt, stores fat, produce blood cells
  6. Axial & Appendicular
    • Axial:
    • HeadNeck (vertebral column)
    • Trunk (thoracic cage; ribs and sternum)
    • Appendicular:
    • pectoral girdle- clavicle, scapula (shoulder blade, collar bone)arms, hands, fingers
    • pelvic girdle- coxal bonelegs, feet, toes
    • dorsal -- cranial cavity, vertebral (spinal) canal
    • ventral -- thoracic cavity, abdominalpelvic cavity (abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity)
  7. Intramembranous bone vs. endochondral bone
    • Endochondral bone:
    • bones originate from hyaline cartilage
    • achondracytes- cartilage cell
    • Intramembranous bone
    • bone of the skullform from sheet-like masses of connective tissue
  8. Joint Types/ classifications
    joints- bones come together and articulate

    • Immoveable joints- joints that lack movements
    • *synarthroses
    • example: sutures (stitches) of the skull

    • Slightly moveable joints
    • *amphiarthroses- move but not a whole lot
    • example: vertebrae, SI joint (sacrum, illium and coccyx bone)

    • Freely moveable joints
    • *diarthroses, synovial joints
    • 1. ball and socket- shoulder, hip
    • 2. hinge- elbow, between phalanges, knee (modified hinge)
    • 3. gliding- tarsal and carpals
    • 4. saddle- between carpal and metacarpal of thumb
    • 5. condyloid- first knuckle of hand and toes, between metacarpal and phalanges
    • 6. pivot- proximal end of ulna and radius
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Card Set:
Test #3
2011-10-26 02:16:40
bone skin joints muscle

integumentary system, skeletal system, joints, muscle
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