Psychology Test 3

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Psychology Test 3
2011-10-26 16:54:11
Psychology Memory`

Test 3
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  1. The Role of Attention is what?
    Focusing awareness
  2. Encoding Levels = 3 total
    Structural = Shallow

    Phonemic = Intermediate

    Semantic = Deep
  3. Shallow is what type of Encoding
  4. Intermediate is what type of encoding
  5. Semantic or Deep is what type of Encoding
    Emphasizes the verbal meaning
  6. 3 Ways a person can improve memory?

    Visual Imagery

  7. Elaboration
    Linking a stimulus to other iinformation at the time of encoding
  8. Visual Imagery
    Creation of images to represent words remembered
  9. Self-Referent
    Making information personal
  10. 3 types of Memory Storage?

    Short term

    Long term
  11. Sensory
    Auditory/Visual - Approx 1/4sec.
  12. Short-Term Memory (STM)
    • Limited Capacity = 7 +(-) 2
    • Chunking
    • 20 seconds without rehersal
  13. Rehearsal
    The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information
  14. Chunking
    Grouping familiar stimuli for storage as a single unit
  15. 3 components of Working Memory
    Phenological Rehearsal Loop- 6 seconds

    Visuospatial Sketchpad- Imagery

    Executive Control System- Juggling in Rehearsal Loop
  16. Longterm Memory 2 types

    Recall Through Hypnosis
  17. Episodic
    Autobiographical Memory- Stories about personal events
  18. Semantic Memory
    Stores general world Knowledge
  19. Draw a Semantic Newtork
    Should look like a spider web
  20. Retro Vs. Anterograde Amnesia
    Retrograde- Loss of memory of events before injury

    Anterograde- Loss of memory after the injury
  21. Retrieval Failure
    When memory is lost in the system
  22. EBbinghaus Forgetting Curve
    Most forgetting occurs soon after learning
  23. Aquisistion
    Initial stage in learning
  24. 2 types of stimulus control

  25. Generalization
    When a person respnds to other stimuli that are similar 2 the original
  26. Discrimination
    Person responds to only the original CS
  27. Continuous Reinforcement
    Every instance of desired behavior is rewarded
  28. Intermittent (Partial) Reinforcement
    Every instance of desired behavior is rewarded
  29. Ratio Schedules

  30. Fixed Ratio Sched
    A fixed # of responses is needed for reward
  31. Variable Ratio
    Response # for reward is constantly unknown
  32. Fixed Interval
    Reward for set time
  33. Variable Interval
    Time between reinforcment constantly changing
  34. Positive Reinforcement
    Response followed by a rewarding stimulu
  35. Negative Reinforcment
    Response followed by removal of an aversive stimulus
  36. Decreasing a response
  37. Primary Reinforcer
    Non Learned
  38. Secondary Reinforcer
    Learned reinforcer
  39. Token Reinforcer
    Tangible secondary reinforcer
  40. Escape Learning
    Learning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus
  41. Avoidance Learning
    Learning to make a response to avoid discomfort
  42. UCS Unconditional Stimulus
    Naturally elicits response w/o learning
  43. Conditional Stimulus
    Previously nuetral stimulus paired with UCS
  44. Unconditional Response
    Response to UCS w/o learning
  45. Conditional Response
    Response to UCS after learning has taken place
  46. Simultaneous Conditioning
    CS and UCS start and finish together
  47. Short-delay
    CS begins just b4 UCS, but end together
  48. Trace Conditioning
    CS begins and ends B4 UCS is presented
  49. Spontanious Recovery
    An increase in responding after extinction and a period of rest
  50. Operant Chamber
    Puzzle box 4 animals
  51. Shaping
    Changin the Behavior in tiny increments until desired behavior reached