Biology 9 Chapter 10
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Biology 9 Chapter 10
Food, Soil, and Pest Management
How much of the world's cropland is certified organic farming?
What percent is in the U.S.?
Where is the most amount of farming. What percent range?
How is organic farming different from usual methods?
It has many environmental advantages, requires more human labor, costs 10-75%, and is cheaper if you include environmental costs.
What are the obstacles to providing enough food?
Poverty, political upheaval, corruption, war, and harmful environmental effects of food production.
True/False: Even though the poor lack sufficient food, there is enough food for everyone.
What fraction of developing countries do not get enough food?
What is food insecurity?
Living with chronic hunger and poor nutrition.
What is the nutritional definition of macronutrients?
Proteins, carbs, and lipids ( macromolecules).
What is the biological definition of macronutrients?
Element that is greater than 5% body mass (nitrogen, phosphorous, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen )
What is the biological definition of micronutrients?
Element that is less than 5% body mass ( Iron, MB, Mn )
What is the nutritional definition of micronutrients?
Vitamins and minerals ( macromolecules & elemental minerals )
A low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet.
What problems does malnutrition lead to?
Physical and mental health problems.
How many children die every year due to malnutrition?
People suffering from malnutrition have a _____/_____ deficiency.
How many people suffer from overnutrition?
1.6 billion people.
What can cause overnutrition?
Too much eating and/or too little exercise.
What do people suffering from undernutrition and those suffering from overnutrition have in common?
A similar health outlook.
What percent of Americans are overweight? Obese?
66% overweight, 34% obese.
What health issues occur due to being overweight?
Heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes and some cancers.
Modern industrialized coverage has a ________ on the environment than any other human activity.
greater harmful impact
What are some major sources of food?
Croplands; rangelands, pastures, and feedlots; fisheries, and agriculture.
Why has food production increased?
Due to better farm machinery, high-tech fishing fleets, irrigation, pesticides and fertilizers, and high-yield varities.
A _____ of crops makes us vulnerable.
How many plant species makes up 90% of all crops?
What percent is made up of rice, wheat, and corn.
What does high-input agriculture produce?
Monocultures, or single crops.
In high-input agriculture, there are large amounts of:
Heavy equipment, financial capital, fossil fuels, water, commercial inorganic fertilizers, and pesticides.
What is high-input agriculture produced for?
Where is plantation agriculture used?
In the tropics.
What does plantation agriculture produce?
Bananas, sugarcane, coffee an vegetables.
Where does this produce go?
It is exported primarily to developed countries.
What types of agriculture is used for traditional agriculture?
Traditional subsistence agriculture, traditional intensive agriculture, monculture, and polyculture.
How many people in developing countries use traditional agriculture?
2.7 billion people.
What is soul composed of?
Eroded rocks, mineral nutrients, decaying organic matter, water, air, and organisms.
What 3 steps does a green revolution involve?
Selectively bred monocultures, produce high yields by using large inputs of inorganic fertilizers, pesticides, and water, and use multiple cropping.
What is the 2nd green revolution?
Fast growing dwarf wheat and rice.
How much did world grain production increase from 1950 to 1996?
What has industrialized farming evolved into in the U.S.?
Agribusiness, as a small number of giant multinational corporations.
What percent of U.S. income is spent on food?
It is subsidized through ____.