Social Psych 2

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Social Psych 2
2011-10-27 01:19:54
Social Psych Exam

Social Psychology 2nd Exam
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  1. Material Self (William James)
    • Type of clothes, hairstyle, materialistic things that define us
    • Kind of house, decorations, cleanliness
  2. Spiritual Self (William James)
    • This is internal
    • Who you are as an individual
    • Essence of who you are
    • Sense of belief
    • Free will, morality
    • Things you don't physically show the world
  3. Social selves
    • We have a multitude of social selves
    • We have a different social self for every person we know
    • Could be modified by the situation instead of the person
    • We identify people by their social selves
    • Can be nice to one person and mean to another. These personalities clash when in a room together
    • Different selves conflict
    • Job choices affect the selves
  4. Rouge Test
    • Put blush on a baby's nose
    • Place it in front of a mirror
    • 6 months to 1 year believes its another baby
    • 18 months baby touches its nose
    • 18-24 months recognizes its own image
    • Even deaf children recognize themselves
    • Primates also touch their nose
  5. Theory of social comparison
    • People compare themselves to others
    • Use this comparison to determine worth and competence
    • Use others as a source of information
  6. Distinctiveness postulate
    • People focus on their unusual traits during self-analysis
    • Asked first/second graders what they thought about themselves
    • They focused on the things that made them unique
  7. Objective self-awareness
    • Self focused attention on personal behaviors and beliefs
    • If a waiter drops plates all the focus is on him/her
  8. General tendency of research subjects for self-awareness
    They became self-critical during an objective self-aware state
  9. Halloween study
    • Beaman and others (et al)
    • Invited kids into a room with a large bowl of candy
    • The back wall was either a regular wall or a mirrored wall
    • Let the kids go into the room alone and instructed to take 1 piece
    • Kids who saw their reflection took 2 pieces
    • No mirror kids took an average of 12
    • The mirror acted as an objective self-awareness tool
  10. Can objective self-awareness alter personal attitudes?
    • Asked people to pretend they were jurors
    • Watched a case
    • Take the subjects into a room
    • Half of the cubicles used to judge if the defendant was guilty had mirrors
    • The ones with mirrors gave more strict and harsh punishments
  11. OSA and personal attitudes
    • When we are in a state of objective self-awareness we are more critical about others as well
    • Cameras in the court room make people more critical
  12. Relationship between alcohol and objective self-awareness
    • Got people shit faced (1/2 subjects)
    • 3 men, 3 women
    • Allowed them to talk to each other for 3 minutes
    • On average sober people said "I" "me" etc 40 times
    • Drunks made that statement 8 times
    • Intoxication takes focus away from ourselves
  13. Situated identities
    • Role of the social situation on the self-schema
    • Leads to self-awareness
  14. Private self-consciousness
    • Attention to the non-public, introspective aspects of self
    • These are when we are alone
    • Guilt
  15. Public self-consciousness
    • Projecting a positive image to others in an attempt to control one's social image
    • IE boasting about promotion
    • Embarrassment
  16. Ingratiation
    • Use of "spontaneous" and well-constructed flattery
    • Goal is affection
    • We want people to like us
    • Contrived ingratiation is awful
  17. Vonk's study of self-esteem
    • Participants with high and low self esteem
    • When complemented:
    • High self-esteem people take it as affirmation
    • Low self-esteem people take is as new information
  18. Intimidation
    • Aggressive strategy designed to dominate others
    • Goal is fear
    • IE professor laughing at students during an exam
  19. Self-promotion
    • Boasting behavior or extreme modesty focused on personal accomplishments
    • The goal is to appear competent
  20. Reflective glory
    • Act of playing up our associations with high status people or events
    • "I know Barack Obama therefore I'm better than you"
  21. Cutting off reflective failure
    • Distancing ourselves from low-status people or events
    • Football teams lose => on Monday less people wear the school's clothing
    • Football team wins, more people wear clothing
    • Career goes south, we abandon the career in favor of something better
  22. Self-monitoring
    Tendency to regulate one's social behavior based on either social demands or internal factors
  23. High self-monitors
    • Adapt social behavior to fit the situation and public expectations
    • Taking to someone at a party and they start texting.. you try something new
  24. Low self-monitors
    • Ignore social demands and act based on personal values and beliefs
    • People act based on their values
  25. High self monitors
    • Better at facial expressions
    • Produce emotions on demand
    • Better at reading social situations
    • More concerned with physical appearance of their partner
  26. Low self monitors
    • Much less to be persuaded by authority
    • Car salesman tells all the facts but a LSM person not impressed
  27. Self-disclosure
    • Process of revealing intimate information about ourselves to others
    • Disclose information to people we barely know
    • Can't come back to haunt us
  28. Strangers on a train
    • I share my virginity story on a train
    • Doesn't matter
    • I won't see the person ever again
    • Nothing to hold back
  29. Orientation
    • Stage 1
    • Name, age, job
    • Superficial information
  30. Exploratory exchange
    • Personal history
    • Stories
    • Experiences
    • Typically not emotional
  31. Affective exchance
    • Sharing of emotional details
    • Likes, dislikes, passions, motivators
    • Majority of people don't go past this exchange
  32. Stable exchange
    • 4th stage
    • No matter what you talk about there is a stable relationship
    • Can say anything or share anything and there won't be judgment or hatred etc
    • HARD to get here
  33. Norm of reciprocity in self-disclosure
    • Expectation that both sides should make intimate self-disclosures
    • Expectation both sides should share emotional information
    • Harder for men than women
  34. Relationships and self-disclosure
    • People are more attracted to those who don't spill out everything within first 30 minutes of a date
    • Married couples with high rates of self-disclosure report having more satisfying relationships
  35. Propinquity
    • Geographical closeness or proximity may enhance attraction
    • Doesn't usually create attraction
    • Tells us if we share same space it can help blossom a relationship
    • This can also be the reason most long distance relationships fail. No physicality.
  36. Galton
    • Had a friend who bet him he could prove the best girls are from Scotland. Galton ranked every girl 1-10 in notebooks. England won.
    • This scale is VERY subjective
  37. Names and attraction
    • Names can influence attraction
    • 10 pictures shown to two groups of people
    • 1 had weird names --> good ratings
    • 1 had nice names --> awful ratings
  38. Cultural shifts in perception of beauty
    • Time chances beauty
    • Decades pass by
    • Models in 50s considered not attractive by today's standards
    • Again, very subjective
  39. Predictability and attractiveness
    • Attraction is often conservative. Predictability involves no risk.
    • But it becomes boring if it's too predictable
    • Spontaneity is fun!
  40. Similarity
    • The MOST important variable in social psychology
    • Overrides physical attractiveness
    • Extremely influential
  41. Actual similarity
    • The TRUE degree of similarity between two people
    • Beliefs, intelligence, physical attraction
  42. Perceived similarity
    • Degree of similarity that people believe exists between them
    • Watching a movie --> "yeah that could happen"
    • Usually more influential than actual similarity
    • Works in the short term. Fails in the long term.
  43. People with an unfavorable self-concept
    • May be attracted to people who are not similar
    • Date people who are incredibly different
    • Branch out, piss off parents
    • Figure out who we are and what we want
  44. Matching hypothesis
    • Tendency to seek one's level of physical attractiveness
    • a) matched couples report greater levels of satisfaction than non-matched
    • b) mismatched couples report greater dissatisfaction and divorce rates
    • Guys can be taller than girls but RARELY the other way around
    • Mixed race relationships are easier now. Family generally creates the problems, not surrounding society.
    • Socio-economic status can influence
    • Age is a double standard
  45. Harry Harlow's research on attachment and tactile stimulation
    • Cloth vs wire mothers
    • 1) Wire mother: stainless steel skeleton with baby bottle welded in. It gave nourishment, but was cold
    • 2) Cloth mother: Same rubber skeleton encased in foam rubber and covered in soft cloth. Provided warmth but no nourishment
    • Primates preferred cloth over the cold steel
    • Primates prefer tactile touch
    • Revolution in pediatrics
    • The BEST was rocking, feeding, and warmth
  46. Fear in primates
    • Primates would react to being afraid
    • 1960s toys would scare them
  47. Social deprivation and isolation
    • Critical period of attachment first 3-6 months of life
    • If isolated, primates failed to acclimate
    • Exhibit socially inappropriate behaviors such as biting themselves
    • If an isolated female became pregnant she abused the baby
  48. Attachment styles
    • a) Secure: these people like long term commitment if it feels right
    • b) Avoidant: Don't want long term relationships. Avoid secure relationships.
    • c) Anxious/ambivalent: Will get involved but can flip out and retreat. Sometimes want long term, other times not.
  49. Passionate love
    • Intense and possibly unrealistic emotional attraction
    • Socialization: culture must teach concept of passionate love
    • We have to learn and get conditioned
  50. Socialization of love
    • a) Greek and Roman: Perception that marriage destroys a loving relationship
    • b) Origin of passionate love: Middle ages in Europe
    • c) 17th century England: Ideal marriage is based on being in love with someone else. First time people that actually love each other are married.
    • d) More a person thinks about love, the more he/she is likely to fall in love. Not exactly a self-fulfilling prophecy
  51. Eros
    • Primary type of love
    • Erotic
    • Romantic, passionate love
    • People aspire to this
  52. Ludus
    • Primary type of love
    • Game playing love
    • Coolidge effect: Farmer says rooster has sex every day. Wife tells Coolidge to check it out. Coolidge says it's a different hen every day.
  53. Storge
    • Primary type of love
    • Friendship love
    • No physical contact
    • No sex
    • Advocated by Plato "platonic love"
  54. Pragma
    • Secondary type of love
    • Logical love
    • Very practical
    • Mr. Right has all the right traits. If one thing is missing, forget it
  55. Manta
    • Secondary type of love
    • Possessive, dependent
    • Intense.. near stalker-esque
    • Eliminate their friends until it's only the couple
  56. Agape
    • Secondary type of love
    • Selfless, altruistic
    • Opposite of selfish
    • Says to their child "I want to be sick, not you"
    • Very easily abused and taken advantage of
  57. Three components of love (Sternberg)
    • Intimacy: emotional component
    • Passion: motivational (sex)
    • Decision and commitment: cognitive component. Wanting to spend time with this person
  58. Single components in love
    • a) Liking: intimacy without passion or commitment. Friendship, plutonic, don't want to bang them. Intimacy leads to self-disclosure
    • b) Infatuation: passion without intimacy or commitment. Fuck buddy.
    • c) Empty: Commitment without passion or intimacy. Arranged marriage.
  59. Multiple components in love
    • a) Romantic love: Intimacy and passion, no commitment. You like the person and are sexually active, but you know it will end.
    • b) Companionate love: Intimacy and commitment, no passion. Two lonely people or two elderly people.
    • c) Fatuous love: Passion and commitment, no intimacy. Gold digger, friend with benefits.
    • d) Consummate love: Intimacy, passion, commitment all in one! Everyone thinks they have it, but in reality it is quite rare.
  60. Harry Harlow's view on love
    • Poets and writers do a better job describing it than psychologists.
    • The little we've discovered goes barely beyond what is intuitive.
  61. Prosocial behavior
    • Any act, possibly involving risk or sacrifice, that benefits others or has a positive social consequence
    • Catherine Genovese: Coming home from work. Brutally beaten and murdered. 30 people witness, no one called police until she was dead.
  62. Bystander intervention
    A decision making process that leads to a prosocial behavior
  63. Latane and Darley stages of bystander intervention
    • This is a linear process
    • 1) Notice the incident? No -> no help. Yes ->
    • 2) Is it an emergency? No -> no help. Yes ->
    • 3) Assume responsibility. No -> no help. Yes ->
    • 4) Believe in ability to help. No -> no help. Yes ->
    • 5) Attempt to help.
  64. Environment and upbrining in prosocial behavior
    • a) People raised in sall towns are much more helpful than those raised in large cities or urban environments
    • b) People raised by mral and altruistic parents tend to be more helpful
  65. Bystander effect
    • 1) As the number of bystanders increases, helping behavior decreases
    • 2) Even 5 bystanders greatly decreases the helpful interactions
    • 3) As the number of bystancers increase, reaction time increases
  66. Explanations of the bystander effect
    • Diffusion: All members of the group share the same responsbility
    • a) As the group size increases, responsibility becomes more diffuse
    • b) Responsibility of taking action is shared by the group. Different for an individual bystander.
    • c) Ally effect: a strong person can break the bystander effect
  67. Similarity and attraction with bystander effect
    • 1) People who are most similar to us will receive help more often than those who are different
    • 2) Attractive and pleasant people are more likely to receive help.
    • 3) Socio-economic status: Wealthy help the wealthy, poor help the poor
  68. Internalizing norms
    Socially defined standards of behavior
  69. Social responsbility norm
    • We should help those who need help
    • a) "The Golden Rule" - do unto others and you would like done to you
    • b) Many people believe this but it is seldom practiced
  70. The norm of reciprocity in respect to social responsbility
    • Moral obligation to help others who have helped us
    • We're supposed to help those who have helped us
    • This is based on a reciprocal nature
  71. Relationships between helper and victim
    • 1) Previous relationship increases helping, no matter if it ended poorly
    • 2) Tornado victims help family > friends> neighbors > strangers
  72. Demands and costs of helping
    • What's in it for me?
    • a) Cost of time: Darley and Battson's "Good Samaritan" study. People in a hurry don't help others.
    • b) As demand of time are increased, helping behavior decreases
    • c) Irony is the good Samaritan parable is about helping people
  73. Group
    • A group consists of three or more people who interact and are interdependent in the sense that their needs and goals cause them to influence each other
    • Two people are considered a dyad
    • You can influence them and they can influence you
    • Must be able to interact with everyone
    • Members tend to be alike in age, sex, beliefs and opinions
  74. Social norms
    • All societies have norms about what is acceptable
    • IE being quiet in a library or not shouting late at night
    • If we violate the norms we can be shunned or kicked out of the groups
  75. Social roles
    • Shared expectations in a group about how particular people are supposed to behave
    • Norms = how people should act
    • Roles = people who occupy a certain position act a certain way
    • Roles allow us to know what is expected of each other
  76. Zimbardo prison study
    • Paid students to play the role of prison guard or prisoner
    • Outfitted appropriately
    • Guards became abusive
    • Prisoners became submissive
    • People got so far into their roles that their personal identities and sense of decency somehow got lost
    • Similar to the prison abuse at Abu Ghraib
  77. Gender roles
    • In many cultures women are expected to assume the role of wife and mother and have limited opportunities to pursue a career
    • As women's status in society improved they became more assertive. As their rights declined they became less assertive.
  78. Group cohesiveness
    • The qualities of a group that bind members together and promote mutual liking
    • The more cohesive the group, the better
    • If a group performs well, cohesiveness increases
  79. Group performance
    • 1) Performing a task with coworkers who are doing the same thing as you
    • 2) Performing a task where everyone else is watching you
    • Cockroach test: watched a cockroach run down a lit hallway into a dark box
    • Then placed cockroaches on the side like spectators
    • The cockroach who was being watched ran faster than when alone
  80. Simple versus difficult tasks - social facilitation
    • When tasked in a maze the cockroaches took longer to find the exit when being watched.
    • Found the exit faster when alone
    • Many other studies have also found that people and animals do worse in the presence of others when the task is difficult
  81. Arousal and dominant responses
    • Our bodies become more energized when others are around us
    • When aroused (energized) simpler tasks are easier to perform a dominant task than something complex or new.
  82. Social facilitation
    The tendency for people to d better on simple tasks and worse on complex tasks when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance can be evaluated
  83. Explanations for social facilitation
    • 1) Others cause us to become particularly alert and vigilant. When there is someone else in the room with us we have to be aware that they can interact with us.
    • 2) Others make us apprehensive. We are concerned with how other people are evaluating us. Evaluation apprehension, the fear of being judged.
    • 3) They distract us from the task at hand. It is difficult to pay attention to two things at once.
  84. Social loafing
    • The tendency for people to relax when they are in the presence of others and their individual performance cannot be evaluated, such that they do worse on simple tasks but better on complex tasks.
    • Simple could be pulling on a rope. Do less work in a group, more by yourself.
    • Social loafing is stronger in males than females
    • Stronger in western than Asian cultures
    • Relaxation improves complex, reduces simple
  85. Deindividuation
    • The loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people can't be identified - such as when they are in a crowd. EX: KKK
    • More people in the mob increased the brutality and savageness
    • Warriors with hidden identities more likely to kill, mutilate, and violate their opposition
  86. Deindividuation makes people feel less accountable
    • People in a mob are less likely to be singled out and confronted
    • Very similar to the diffusion of responsibility
  87. Deindividuation increases obediences of group norms
    • When people are in groups they become deindividuated, promoting the likeliness that they will follow group norms
    • If you are at a party with dim lighting, loud music, dancing, and you are dressed similarly, you will be more likely to engage in dancing
  88. Deindividuation in cyberspace
    • People gain anonymity so they can say whatever they want but at the cost of a civilized discussion
    • Think 4chan
  89. Group decisions
    • Two heads are GENERALLY better than one if:
    • 1) Groups rely on the individual with the most expertise
    • 2) The decision is based on what's best for the group, not just the individual
  90. Process loss (group decision)
    • A group will do well IF the most talented member can convince the rest of the group he/she are correct
    • Definition: any aspect of group interaction that inhibits good problem solving
    • 1) Groups may not try hard enough to find the most talented or qualified individual
    • 2) The most competent member may find it difficult to disagree with everyone else in teh group
    • 3) Some people don't listen - communication loss
  91. Failure to share unique information
    • This is the tendency to focus on what the group already has and ignore new information that only a few know
    • Cab be overcome if the discussion lasts long enough to go beyond the point of sharing common knowledge
  92. Transactive memory
    The combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual
  93. Groupthink
    A kind of thinking in which maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity is more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner
  94. Antecedents (preceding circumstances) of groupthink
    • The group is highly cohesive: the group is valued and attractive, and people very much want to be members.
    • Group isolationL the group is isolated, protected from hearing different viewpoints
    • A directive leader: the leader controls the discussion and makes his or her wishes known
    • High stress: the members perceive threats to the group
    • Poor decision-making procedures: no standard methods to consider alternative viewpoints
  95. Symptoms of groupthink
    • Illusion of invincibility: the group feels it is invincible and can do no wrong
    • Belief in the moral correctness of the group: "God is on our side"
    • Stereotyped views of out-group: opposing sides are viewed in a simplistic, stereotyped (often negative) manner
    • Self-censorship: people decide themselves no to voice contrary opinions
    • Direct pressure on dissenters to conform: if people do voice contrary opinions, they are pressured by others to conform to the majority
    • Illusion of unanimity: an illusion is created that everyone agrees, for example, by not calling on people known to disagree
    • Mindguards: group members protect the leader from contrary opinions or views
  96. Defective decision making
    • Incomplete survey of alternatives
    • Failure to examine risks of the favored alternative
    • Poor information search
    • Failure to develop contingency (future event) plans
  97. Avoiding the groupthink
    • Remain impartial
    • Seek outside opinions
    • Create subgroups
    • Seek anonymous opinions
  98. Group polarization
    • There is a tendency that groups make riskier decisions than individuals do
    • The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclinations of its members
    • If initially thinking risky, groups will be very risky
    • If initially thinking conservative, groups will be very conservative
    • Initially people probe out the group's thoughts so that they can construct an argument that will put them in a positive light
  99. Leadership in groups - the great person theory
    • The idea that certain key traits make a person a good leader, regardless of the situation
    • Surprisingly few characteristics correlate strongly with being a good leader
  100. Types of leadership
    • Transactional leaders set clear, short-term goals and reward people who meet them. More organized.
    • Transformational leaders inspire followers to focus on common, long term goals. Think outside the box. MLK.
    • Most effective leaders adopt both styles
  101. Contingency theory of leadership
    • The idea that leadership effectiveness depends both on how task-oriented or relationship-oriented the leader is and on the amount of control and influence the leader has over the group
    • Task-oriented leaders: A leader who is concerned more with getting the job done than the worker's feelings and relationships. Best in low or high situational control.
    • Relationship-oriented leaders: More concerned with the feelings and relationships than getting the job done. Best in moderate situational control.
  102. Glass cliff
    Even when women have succeeded in getting to the top of corporate ladder they are put in positions where they are destined to fail
  103. Sexism and leadership
    • If women confine to societal expectations about how they ought to behave, by being warm and communal, they are often perceived to have low leadership potential
    • If women succeed in attaining leadership positions and act in ways that leaders are expected to act, they are perceived negatively because they are "not acting like a woman should"
  104. Social dilemmas
    • A conflict in which the most beneficial action for an individual, if chosen by most people, have harmful effects on everyone
    • Stephen King novel
    • Individual had a monetary benefit to DL for free, but whole lost out
    • Prisoner game of choosing X and Y
  105. Tit-for-tat strategy
    A means of encouraging cooperation by at first acting cooperatively but then always responding the way your opponent did on the previous trial
  106. Public goods dilemma
    • A social dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool in order to maintain public good
    • Taxes
  107. The commons dilemma
    • A social dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of goods that will replenish itself if used in moderation but will disappear if overused
    • Benefits individuals to use a lot, but that detracts from society
  108. Threats to resolve conflicts
    • Doesn't work
    • Truck game
    • Threats decreased profits
    • Communications lessened the loss, but still had loss
  109. Negotiating
    • A form of communication between opposing sides in a conflict in which offers and counteroffers are made and a solution occurs only when both parties agree
    • Most people don't realize that neutral solutions are available
  110. Integrative solution
    • A solution to a conflict whereby the parties make trade-offs on issues according to their different interests
    • Each side concedes the most on issues that are unimportant to it but important to the other side
    • Divorce: one may give up record in favor of season football tickets
  111. Communication in dilemmas
    Only useful if it allows parties to develop trust
  112. Propinquity effect
    • The finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends
    • MIT complex study
  113. Mere exposure effect
    The finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more apt we are to like (or dislike) it
  114. Similarity vs complementarity
    • Similarity: A match between interests, attitudes, background, values, or personality. Serious, long term commitment.
    • Complementarity: Attracted to those who are our opposites. People that want a fling.
    • Research shows that similarity wins
  115. Similarity in attraction
    • Interpersonal style: how people think about people
    • Interests and experiences: friends from your major, etc
  116. Reciprocal in attraction
    • We like to be liked
    • If we think someone likes us, we will be nicer to them
  117. Attraction across culture
    Generally the same!
  118. Attraction and familiarity
    We are most attracted to those who look like us
  119. Beauty matters even when it shouldn't
    • Babies more likely to get better neonatal care when they are prettier
    • People with above average looks tend to make 10-15% more
  120. Physical attractiveness
    • Given a photo of a pretty or ugly person
    • If a pretty person, phone call was nicer; vice versa
    • Third party people listened to only the call of the photographed person. If it was a pretty picture, the person was viewed as nicer and warmer.
  121. Social exchange theory
    • The idea that people's feelings about a relationship depend on their perceptions of the rewards and costs of the relationship, the kind of relationship they observe, and their chances for having a better relationship with someone else.
    • We "buy" the best relationship we can get. The one that gives us the best emotional value for our "dollar"
  122. Comparison level
    People's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they are likely to receive in a particular relationship
  123. Comparison level for alternatives
    • Would I be happier with someone else?
    • People's expectations about the level of rewards and punishments they would receive in an alternative relationship
  124. Equity theory
    The idea that people are happiest with relationships in which the rewards and costs experienced and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal
  125. Amae
    Japanese belief that amae is an extremely positive emotional state in which one is a totally passive love object that is indulged by the romantic partner
  126. Evolutionary approach to love
    A theory derived from evolutionary biology that holds that mean and women are attracted to different characteristics in each other (men -> looks; women -> resources) because this maximizes their chance for successful reproduction
  127. Evolutionary psychology
    The attempt to explain social behavior in terms of genetic factors that evolved over time according to the principles of natural selection
  128. Attachment styles
    The expectations people develop about relationships with others, based on the relationship they had with their primary caregiver when they were infants
  129. Secure attachment style
    An attachment style characterized by trust, a lack of concern with being abandoned and the view that one is worthy and well liked
  130. Avoidance attachment style
    An attachment style characterized by a suppression of attachment needs, because attempts to be intimate have been rebuffed; people with this style find it difficult to develop intimate relationships
  131. Anxious/ambivalent attachment style
    An attachment style characterized by a concern that others will not reciprocate one's desire for intimacy, resulting in higher-than-average levels of anxiety
  132. Genetics and attachment style
    It currently appears that one's genes account for 20-45% of the anxious and avoidance styles with the environment accounting for the rest
  133. Investment model
    The theory that people's commitment toa relationship depends not only on their satisfaction with the relationship in terms of rewards, costs, and comparison level and their comparison level for alternatives but also on how much they have invested in the relationship that would be lost by leaving it
  134. Exchange relationships
    • Relationships governed by the need for equity
    • An equal ratio of cost and reward
  135. Communal relationships
    • Relationships in which people's primary concern is being responsive to the other person's needs
    • This is the hallmark of a committed couple
  136. Equity concerns
    • 1) We like to be repaid immediately for our favors
    • 2) We feel exploited when our favors are not returned
    • 3) We keep track of who is contributing what to the relationship
    • 4) Being able to help the person has no effect on our mood
  137. Responsiveness to the other's needs (communal)
    • 1) We do NOT lie to be repaid immediately for our favors
    • 2) We do NO feel exploited when our favors are not repaid
    • 3) We do NOT keep track who is contributing what to the relationship
    • 4) Being able to help the other person puts us in a good mood
  138. Basic helping standards
    • People help when the benefits outweigh the risks
    • Helping decreases when costs are high
    • Helping can be rewarding; ie social rewards
  139. Empathy
    The ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience the events and emotions the way that person experiences them
  140. Empathy-altruism hypothesis
    The idea that when we feel empathy for a person, we will attempt to help that person purely for altruistic reasons, regardless of what we have to gain
  141. Batson test
    • Played a tape of girl explaining how she broke both her legs
    • Participants were told to try and approach with little or a lot of apathy
    • Those with a lot of apathy decided to help her
    • Those wish none, didn't
    • Low empathy means social exchange plays a role
  142. Basic motives of prosocial behavior
    • 1) Helping is an instinctive reaction to promore the welfare of those genetically similar to us - evolutionary psych
    • 2) The rewards of helping often outweigh the costs, so helping is in our self-interest
    • 3) Under some conditions, powerful feelings of empathy and compassion for the victim prompt selfless giving
  143. Gender and helping
    • Males are supposed to be the heroes, more chivalrous.
    • Females are supposed to be nurturant, caring, and caring for long term relationships
  144. In and out groups
    • In-group: the group with which an individual identifies as a member
    • Out-group: any group with which an individual does not identify
  145. "Feel good, do good" effect
    • 1) Good moods make us look at the bright side of life
    • 2) Helping people is a great way of prolonging our good mood
    • 3) Increases the amount of attention we pay to ourselves
  146. "Feel bad, do good" effect"
    • Only works when we are guilty or sad
    • We think a good deed cancels out a bad one
    • Religion and prosocial behavior
    • Religion people only do stuff when it benefits them
  147. Urban overload hypothesis
    The theory that people living in cities are constantly being bombarded with stimulation and that they keep to themselves to avoid being overwhelmed by it
  148. Location and prosocial behavior
    Those who have stayed in the same place for an extended period of time are more likely to engage in prosocial behavior
  149. Pluralistic ignorance
    The case in which people think that everyone else is interpreting the situation in a certain way, when in fact they are not