Human Biology 18
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Function of nervous system?
receive and respond to stimuli
How do neurons work?
carry electrical and chemical messages between brain and other parts of the body
- Central Nervous System
- concentrated neurons in the brain and spinal chord
tissues that respond to nerve signals
electrical charges that transmit information
chemicals that transmit nerve impulses
define sensory receptors and give examples
- neurons or other cells that commnicate w/neurons
- taste, smell, sight
eyes specialized receptor - sends information to the brain
What are the general senses?
touch, pressure, body position, vibration
What are the special senses?
smell, taste, equilibrium, hearing, vision
specialized neurons, sense joint position, tension in joints and ligaments and muscle contractions, balance information
5 taste sensations
main nerve pathway
bones in spinal cord
automatic responses to stimuli
- peripheral nervous system
- radiate out from brain and spinal cord
long, flexible rod that runs through axis of vertical body in the future position
function of cerebrospinal fluid
protective liquid bath that surrounds the brain
how many neurons in the brain?
carry nutrients to help repair, attach bacteria
controls language, memory, sensations, decision making
lobes and functions of cerebrum
- temporal-auditory and olifactory, memory and emotion
- occipital - process visual
- parietal- touch, self awareness
- frontal - voluntary muscle movements, planning and organizing
outer surface of cerebrum, understanding and generating of speech
what communicates between hemispheres
Paired structures that coordinate movement
relay information between spinal cord and cerebrum
sex drive, pleasure, pain, hunger, thirst, blood pressure
brain stem function
controls balance, muscle movement, coordination
Parts of the brain stem?
- medulla oblongata
- mid brain
- Filter for sensory input, analyzes and filters out stimuli that requires no response
- part of medulla oblongata
neurons usually do not divide
branches that come off neuron cell
protective layer surrounding axons
house nucleus and organelles
Wire like structure that delivers electrical signals to dandrites
knobby ends of axons
- cell body
- terminal boutons
supporting cells that make up the myelin
nervous tissue composed of myelinated cells
node of Ranvier
tiny unmyelinated patches
unmyelinated axons combined with dendrites and cell bodies of other neurons
another name for a nerve impulse is an action potential
a resting neuron is negatively charges on the inside compared to the outside of the cell membrane
difference in charge across membrane
How does propagation between neurons occur?
- neurotransmitter is released, cross synapse,
- evokes a response to neuron released by enzyme
how does polarization happen?
Concentration of potasium inside cell is greater than sodium outside - leaks across
uses enerty of ATP to move 3 sodium molecules for every 2 potassium molecules returned to cell
Define depolarization and how does it happen
reduction in change difference across neuronel membrane
how does repolarization happen
when potassium ions diffuse out of cells and inside of cells become more negative than outside
gap between neurons, transmits information
neurotransmitter receptors on pres. cell, permits neuron to reenter cell
How does Ritalin work?
increase dopamine's ability to stimulate post synaptic cells by blocking actions of dpoamine reuptake receptor
What is released when electrial impulses arrive at the terminal bouton?
What causes the uptake of sodium ions by the postsynaptic neuron?
The binding of a neurotransmitter to the postsynoptic cell membrane.
categories of druges and their mechanism of action
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