Human Biology 18

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Human Biology 18
2011-10-29 15:39:39
Human Biology Chapter 18

Chapter 18
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  1. Function of nervous system?
    receive and respond to stimuli
  2. How do neurons work?
    carry electrical and chemical messages between brain and other parts of the body
  3. CNS
    • Central Nervous System
    • concentrated neurons in the brain and spinal chord
  4. Effectors
    tissues that respond to nerve signals
  5. Nerve impulses
    electrical charges that transmit information
  6. neurotransmitter
    chemicals that transmit nerve impulses
  7. three types of neurons
    • sensory
    • motor
    • interneurons
  8. define sensory receptors and give examples
    • neurons or other cells that commnicate w/neurons
    • taste, smell, sight
  9. retina
    eyes specialized receptor - sends information to the brain
  10. What are the general senses?
    touch, pressure, body position, vibration
  11. What are the special senses?
    smell, taste, equilibrium, hearing, vision
  12. Proprioception
    specialized neurons, sense joint position, tension in joints and ligaments and muscle contractions, balance information
  13. 5 taste sensations
    • sweet
    • salty
    • sour
    • bitter
    • umami
  14. main nerve pathway
    spinal cord
  15. vertebrae
    bones in spinal cord
  16. reflexes
    automatic responses to stimuli
  17. PNS
    • peripheral nervous system
    • radiate out from brain and spinal cord
  18. notochord
    long, flexible rod that runs through axis of vertical body in the future position
  19. function of cerebrospinal fluid
    protective liquid bath that surrounds the brain
  20. how many neurons in the brain?
    100-200 billion
  21. Glial cells
    carry nutrients to help repair, attach bacteria
  22. cerebrum
    controls language, memory, sensations, decision making
  23. lobes and functions of cerebrum
    • temporal-auditory and olifactory, memory and emotion
    • occipital - process visual
    • parietal- touch, self awareness
    • frontal - voluntary muscle movements, planning and organizing
  24. cerebral cortex
    outer surface of cerebrum, understanding and generating of speech
  25. what communicates between hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  26. caudate nuclei
    Paired structures that coordinate movement
  27. thalmus function
    relay information between spinal cord and cerebrum
  28. hypothalamus function
    sex drive, pleasure, pain, hunger, thirst, blood pressure
  29. brain stem function
    control respiration
  30. cerebellum function
    controls balance, muscle movement, coordination
  31. Parts of the brain stem?
    • medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • mid brain
  32. reticular formation
    • Filter for sensory input, analyzes and filters out stimuli that requires no response
    • part of medulla oblongata
  33. neurons usually do not divide
  34. dendrites
    branches that come off neuron cell
  35. myelin sheath
    protective layer surrounding axons
  36. cell body
    house nucleus and organelles
  37. axon
    Wire like structure that delivers electrical signals to dandrites
  38. terminal boutons
    knobby ends of axons
  39. neuron parts
    • dendrites
    • cell body
    • axon
    • terminal boutons
  40. Schwann cells
    supporting cells that make up the myelin
  41. white matter
    nervous tissue composed of myelinated cells
  42. node of Ranvier
    tiny unmyelinated patches
  43. gray matter
    unmyelinated axons combined with dendrites and cell bodies of other neurons
  44. another name for a nerve impulse is an action potential
  45. a resting neuron is negatively charges on the inside compared to the outside of the cell membrane
  46. polarization
    difference in charge across membrane
  47. How does propagation between neurons occur?
    • neurotransmitter is released, cross synapse,
    • evokes a response to neuron released by enzyme
  48. how does polarization happen?
    Concentration of potasium inside cell is greater than sodium outside - leaks across
  49. sodium/potassium pump
    uses enerty of ATP to move 3 sodium molecules for every 2 potassium molecules returned to cell
  50. Define depolarization and how does it happen
    reduction in change difference across neuronel membrane
  51. how does repolarization happen
    when potassium ions diffuse out of cells and inside of cells become more negative than outside
  52. synapse
    gap between neurons, transmits information
  53. reuptake
    neurotransmitter receptors on pres. cell, permits neuron to reenter cell
  54. How does Ritalin work?
    increase dopamine's ability to stimulate post synaptic cells by blocking actions of dpoamine reuptake receptor
  55. What is released when electrial impulses arrive at the terminal bouton?
  56. What causes the uptake of sodium ions by the postsynaptic neuron?
    The binding of a neurotransmitter to the postsynoptic cell membrane.
  57. categories of druges and their mechanism of action
    • alcohol
    • emphetamines
    • caffeine
    • coccaine
    • ecstasy
    • lsd
    • marijuana
    • nicotine
    • opiates