Antivirals

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Author:
ehamm
ID:
112278
Filename:
Antivirals
Updated:
2011-11-05 17:51:57
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Antivirals
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Description:
List of Antivirals and Mechanisms
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  1. Oseltamivir, Zanamivir
    • Inhibitors of Neuraminidase of influenza
    • Oral
    • Reduce symptoms, reduce course
    • Influenza A and B
  2. Acyclovir
    • Very active against HSV, less against VZV, EBV
    • Inhibits viral DNA polymerase, 100x greater susceptibility to viral DNA
    • Termination of herpes DNA elongation
    • low toxicity
    • Oral -> genitcal herpes
    • IV -> severe genital herpes, VZV
    • Resistant strains of HSV, VZV after long admin
  3. Ganciclovir
    • Aciclovir analog
    • Inhibits human herpes virus, including CMV
    • Inhibits viral DNA polymerase
    • Significant toxicity for uninfected cells
    • Neutropenia, decreased sperm, BM precursers, and gut mucosal cells
    • Relapses common when stopped
  4. Foscarnet
    • Directly inhibits DNA polymerase of all herpes viruses, RNA polymerase of influenza, and reverse transcriptase of retrovirus
    • No thymidine kinase -> CMV
    • Nephrotoxic, continuous IV
  5. Maraviroc
    • HIV entry inhibitor
    • Blocks CCR5
  6. Enfuvirtide
    • Blocks gp41
    • Fuseon
    • Fusion inhibitor
  7. Zidovudine, Azidothymidine
    • Nuc reverse transcriptase inhibitors
    • Terminates viral DNA elongation
    • Reduces frequency of OIs
    • BM toxicity
    • Reduces verticle transmission
  8. Didanosine (ddl) and Zalcitabine (ddC)
    • Nuc reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    • Increases CD4 count and decreases HIV levels
    • Toxicity - pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy
    • ddl -> after AZT resistance
    • ddC -> combo with AZT
  9. Stavudine (D4T)
    • Nuc
    • Terminates viral nucleic acid synthesis
    • High bioavailability
    • Headache, nausea and vomiting, confusion, high AST, peripheral neuropathy
  10. Lamuvidine (3TC)
    • Reverse transcriptase inhibitor
    • Used in combo
    • Reduces the development of AZ resistance mutants
    • Hep B in combo with INF alpha
  11. Nevarapine, delavirdine, eavirenz
    • NNRTIs
    • Bind to reverse transcriptase
    • AZT resistant
    • Less toxic
    • Open to resistance
  12. Raltegravir
    • Integrase inhibitor
    • Resistance to other HAART
  13. Ritonavir, Saquinavir, Indinavir, nelfinavir
    • Protease inhibitors
    • Combo
    • Hepatotoxic
  14. Ribavirin
    • Synthetic triazole nucleoside, guanosine analog
    • Inhibits synthesis of guanosine5`-phosphate which inhibits niral nucleic acid synthesis
    • Aersole fof flu A,B, RSV
    • Oral, IV - lassa fever
    • Hep C when combined with INF alpha

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