Psychology: Learning

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  1. What is learning?
    Relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
  2. What is classical conditioning?
    Learning to associate two stimuli
  3. Who discovered classical conditioning?
    Ivan Pavlov and his dogs
  4. What did Ivan Pavlov discover with classical conditioning?
    Previously neutral stimuli could casue a response if paired with food
  5. 5 types of classical conditioning
    • unconditioned stimulus
    • unconditioned response
    • neutral stimulus
    • conditioned stimulus
    • conditioned respones
  6. Unconditioned Stimulus
    • naturally causes a response
    • ex. hot water (somthing that happens)
  7. Unconditioned Response
    • Natural response to a UCS
    • ex. jumping back from hot water
  8. Neutral Stimulus
    • object that produces no natural response
    • ex. the toilet flushing (same as CS)
  9. Conditioned Stimulus
    • A NS that is paired with a UCS so it now produces it own response
    • ex. the toilet flushing (same as NS)
  10. Conditioned Response
    • The response produced by the CS
    • ex. jumping back (same as UCR)
  11. What is acquisition?
    • Period of learning association between stimulus and response
    • (onion smell + Kiss = sexual arousal) so (onion smell = sexual arousal)
  12. What is generalization?
    responding to stimuli similar to conditioned stimuli (CS)
  13. What is discrimination?
    • distinguish difference between conditional stimuli and irrelevant stimuli
    • ex. its not the sink, its the toilet
  14. What is extinction?
    • Diminishing of a conditioned responce
    • ex. eventually you forget to jump when the toilet flushes
  15. What is spontaneous recovery?
    • reappearace of a conditioned response after a rest period
    • ex. after you forget for a while you start to remember to jump when the toilet flushes
  16. What is operant conditioning?
    • Associate behaviors with consequences
    • Thorndike's law of effect - rewarded behavior is likely to recur
  17. 2 types of operant conditioning
    • Reinforcement - any response that makes a behavior more likely to occur
    • Punishment - any response that makes a behavior less likely to occur
  18. Positive Reinforcement
    adding somthing desirable
  19. Negative Reinforcement
    taking away somthing aversive
  20. Positive Punishment
    adding something aversive
  21. Negative Punishment
    taking away somthing desirable
  22. Reinforcement Schedules
    • Continuous Reinforcement - reinforce behavior after each occurrence
    • Partial/Intermittent reinforcement - only reinforce behavior some of the time
  23. 4 types of Reinforcement Schedule
    • Fixed ratio
    • Varible ratio
    • fixed interval
    • variable interval
  24. Fixed Ratio
    reinforce after a set number of responses
  25. Variable Ratio
    reinforce after random number of responses
  26. Fixed Interval
    reinforce after a set amount of time
  27. Variable Interval
    reinforce after a random amount of time
  28. What is observational learning?
    • Watching others behavior and consequences
    • deals with Modeling
  29. What is Modeling?
    The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
  30. What happened with the Bandura & the Bobo Dolls?
    Demonstrated how children are influenced by aggressive models
Card Set
Psychology: Learning
Ben Libby
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