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What is learning?
Relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
What is classical conditioning?
Learning to associate two stimuli
Who discovered classical conditioning?
Ivan Pavlov and his dogs
What did Ivan Pavlov discover with classical conditioning?
Previously neutral stimuli could casue a response if paired with food
5 types of classical conditioning
- unconditioned stimulus
- unconditioned response
- neutral stimulus
- conditioned stimulus
- conditioned respones
- naturally causes a response
- ex. hot water (somthing that happens)
- Natural response to a UCS
- ex. jumping back from hot water
- object that produces no natural response
- ex. the toilet flushing (same as CS)
- A NS that is paired with a UCS so it now produces it own response
- ex. the toilet flushing (same as NS)
- The response produced by the CS
- ex. jumping back (same as UCR)
What is acquisition?
- Period of learning association between stimulus and response
- (onion smell + Kiss = sexual arousal) so (onion smell = sexual arousal)
What is generalization?
responding to stimuli similar to conditioned stimuli (CS)
What is discrimination?
- distinguish difference between conditional stimuli and irrelevant stimuli
- ex. its not the sink, its the toilet
What is extinction?
- Diminishing of a conditioned responce
- ex. eventually you forget to jump when the toilet flushes
What is spontaneous recovery?
- reappearace of a conditioned response after a rest period
- ex. after you forget for a while you start to remember to jump when the toilet flushes
What is operant conditioning?
- Associate behaviors with consequences
- Thorndike's law of effect - rewarded behavior is likely to recur
2 types of operant conditioning
- Reinforcement - any response that makes a behavior more likely to occur
- Punishment - any response that makes a behavior less likely to occur
adding somthing desirable
taking away somthing aversive
adding something aversive
taking away somthing desirable
- Continuous Reinforcement - reinforce behavior after each occurrence
- Partial/Intermittent reinforcement - only reinforce behavior some of the time
4 types of Reinforcement Schedule
- Fixed ratio
- Varible ratio
- fixed interval
- variable interval
reinforce after a set number of responses
reinforce after random number of responses
reinforce after a set amount of time
reinforce after a random amount of time
What is observational learning?
- Watching others behavior and consequences
- deals with Modeling
What is Modeling?
The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
What happened with the Bandura & the Bobo Dolls?
Demonstrated how children are influenced by aggressive models
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