Replication and Transcription

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shelbymailho
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112294
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Replication and Transcription
Updated:
2011-10-26 02:49:48
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Cell Bio
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  1. Consider the process that a cell uses to replicate its double-stranded DNA to make copies for daughter cells. Which statement best describes the DNA in daughter cells?
    The double helices in each daughter cell consist of one parental stand and 1 newly made strand.
  2. Which term correctly describes DNA replication?
    Semi-conservative
  3. What kind of bonds link 2 strands of a double helix together?
    Hydrogen Bonds
  4. DNA synthesis begins at?
    The Replication Origins
  5. Replication Origins typically consist of a small stretch of DNA rich in?
    As and Ts
  6. DNA Synthesis proceed in what direction?
    5' -----> 3'
  7. Nucleotides are linked by what types of bonds?
    Phosphodiester
  8. At the replication fork, both strands of DNA are replicated in the 5' ---> 3' direction. (T or F?)
    True
  9. At a replication fork, the leading strand is synthesized?
    Cotinuously.
  10. How often does DNA Polymerase make a mistake during replication?
    1:107
  11. When does DNA Polymerase perform its proofreading function on mispaired nucleotides?
    Before adding the next nucleotide in the chain.
  12. The proofreading activity of DNA Polymerase occurs in which direction?
    3' ---> 5'
  13. During DNA replication, DNA polymerase initiates a completely new DNA strand by itself (T or F?)
    False.
  14. Describe a primer used in DNA Replication.
    A short segment (10 nucleotides) of RNA.
  15. DNA replication requires 2 primers: 1 for the leading strand and 1 for the laggin strand (T or F?)
    False.
  16. What powers the action of helicase at the replication fork?
    ATP Hydrolysis
  17. What is the function of single-stranded binding proteins in DNA replication?
    They bind to ssDNA and prevent single strands from reforming.
  18. What is the function of a sliding clamp in DNA replication?
    It keeps DNA polymerase firmly attached to the template while it synthesizes a new strand of DNA.
  19. The enzyme that replicates the ends of the chromosome is called?
    Telomerase
  20. Copying errors not caught by the replication machinery can be corrected by?
    DNA mismatch repair system.
  21. What is depurination?
    The loss of A or Gs from DNA.
  22. How does ultraviolet radiation damage DNA?
    It promotes covalent linkage between 2 adjacent pyrimidine bases (i.e. Ts)
  23. What type of enzyme removes damaged DNA from the rest of the DNA molecule?
    Nuclease
  24. What type of enzyme fills in the gap after damaged DNA has been removed?
    Polymerase
  25. What type of enzyme seals the new added (repaired DNA) to the rest of the DNa molecule?
    Ligase
  26. What is the central dogma?
    Flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to Protein.
  27. An RNA molecule can form into complex 3D shapes because...?
    It is single-stranded.
  28. All the RNA in the cell is made by which process?
    Transcription.
  29. What determines the nucleotide sequence of an RNA strand?
    Complementary base pairing with the DNA template during transcription.
  30. RNA polymerases join nucleotides through what type of bond?
    Phosphodiester
  31. An RNA chain elongates in which direction?
    5' ---> 3'
  32. An RNA polymerase can start an RNA chain without primer (T or F?).
    True.
  33. All RNAs code functional proteins (T or F?).
    False.
  34. To begin transcription, RNA polymerase recognizes nucleotide sequences in what region of the DNA?
    Promoter Region.
  35. At which site on the DNA of a gene does RNA polymerase release its newly made RNA?
    Terminator Region.
  36. What is the name of the subunit of bacterial RNA Polymerase that recognizes the promoter of a gene?
    Sigma Factor
  37. In eukaryotes, what must assemble at a promoter before RNA polymerase can transcribe a gene?
    general transcription factors
  38. The assembly of general transciption factors to a eukaryotic promoter begins at what site in a promoter?
    TATA box.
  39. Bacterial mRNAs...
    Are transcribed and translated simultaneously.
  40. Which of the following does not increase the stability of eukaryotic mRNAS?
    An Intron.
  41. In bacteria, most protein-coding genes lack introns (T or F?)
    True.
  42. Introns are removed by...?
    RNA splicing in the nucleus.
  43. In eukaryotes, which parts of a gene are transcibed into RNA?
    Introns and Exons
  44. Which structure is responsible for selecting and transporting ONLY properly processed eukaryotic mRNAs into the cytoplasm?
    Nuclear Pore complex

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