BIO 205: 2nd Exam

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  1. Fibrous joints
    no synovial cavity, and the bones are held together by dense irregular connective tissue that is rich in collagen fibers.
  2. Cartilaginous joints
    no synovial cavity, and the bones are held together by cartilage.
  3. Synovial joints
    bones forming the joint have a synovial cavity and are united by the dense irregular connective tissue of an articular capsule, and often by accessory ligaments.
  4. Synathrosis
    immovable joint.
  5. Amphiarthrosis
    a slightly movable joint.
  6. Diathrosis
    a freely movable joint. All diathroses are synovial joints--they have a variety of shapes and permit several different types of movements.
  7. Suture
    is a fibrous joint composed of a thin layer of dense irregular connective tissue; sutures occur only between bones of the skull.
  8. Synostosis
    a joint in which there is a complete fusion of two separate bones into one.
  9. Frontal or metopic suture
    if the suture persits beyond age 6.
  10. Syndesmosis
    is a fibrous joint in which there is a greater distance between the articulating surfaces and more dense irregular connective tissue than in a suture.
  11. Interosseous membrane
    a substantial sheet of dense irregular connective tissue that binds neighboring long bones and permits slight movement.
  12. Synchondrosis
    a cartilaginous joint in which the connecting material is hyaline cartilage.
  13. Symphysis
    a cartilagenous joint in which the ends of the articulating bones are covered with hyaline cartilage.
  14. articular (joint) capsule
    surrounds a synovial joint, enclose the synovial cavity, and unites the articulating bones.
  15. Fibrous membrane
    usually consists of dense irregular connective tissue that attaches to the periosteum of the articulating bones.
  16. Ligaments
    one of the principal mechanical factors that hold bones close together in a synovial joint.
  17. synovial membrane
    composed of areolar connective tissue with elastic fibers.
  18. Gliding
    a simple movement in which relatively flat bone surfaces move back-and-forth and from side-to-side with respect to one another.
  19. angular movements
    there is an increase or a decrease in the angle between articulating bones.
  20. flexion
    there is a decrease in the angle between articulating bones
  21. extension
    there is an increase in the angle between articulating bones, often to restore a part of the body to the anatomical position after it has been flexed.
  22. lateral flexion
    occurs along the frontal plane and involves the intervertebral joints.
  23. hyperextension
    continuation of extension beyong the anatomical position
  24. abduction
    the movements of a bone away from the middle
  25. adduction
    movement of a bone toward the midline.
  26. circumduction
    movement of the distal end of the body part in a circle.
  27. rotation
    a bone revolves around its own longitudinal axis.
  28. elevation
    is a superior movement of a part of the body, such as closing the mouth at the temporomandibular joint to elevate the mandible or shrugging the shoulders at the acromioclavicular joint to elevate the scapula and clavicle.
  29. depression
    an inferior movement of a part of the body, such as opening the mouth to depress the mandible or returning shrugged shoulders to the anatomical position to depress the scapula and clavicle.
  30. protraction
    a movement of a part of the body anteriorly int eh transverse plane.
  31. retraction
    a movement of a protracted part of the body back to the anatomical position.
  32. inversion
    a movement of the sole medially at the intertarsal joints. Its opposing movement in eversion. Physical therapists also refer to inversion of the feet as supination.
  33. eversion
    a movement of the soel laterally at the intertarsal joints. Physical therapists also refer to eversion of the feet as pronation.
  34. dorsiflexion
    refers to bending fo the foot at the ankle or talorural joint in the direction of the dorsum. It occurs when you stand on your heels. Its opposing movement is plantar flexion.
  35. Plantar flexion
    involves bending of the foot at the ankle joint int he direction of the plantar or inferior surface, as when you elevate your body by standing on your toes.
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BIO 205: 2nd Exam
2011-10-26 11:08:46
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