Volume 1 Chapter 9 Pt. 2

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amerelman
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Volume 1 Chapter 9 Pt. 2
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2010-03-26 13:31:36
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Volume 1 Chapter 9 Pt. 2
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  1. Prototype
    Drug that best demonstrates the class's common properties and illustrates its particular characteristics
  2. Nervous System
    Central Nervous System- Brain and Spinal Cord

    • Peripheral Nervous System- All nervous tissue outside of CNS
    • Autonomic Nervous System- Controls involuntary "automatic" functions
    • Sympathetic- "Fight or Flight"- Tends to speed things up
    • Parasympathetic- "Feed and Breed"- Tends to slow things and inhibit
    • Somatic Nervous System- Controls voluntary motor functions
  3. Analgesic
    Medication that relieves the sensation of pain
  4. Analgesia
    The abscence of the sensation of pain
  5. Anesthesia
    The abscensce of all sensations
  6. Adjunct Medication
    Agent that enhances the effects of other drugs
  7. Anesthetic
    Medication that induces a loss of sensation to touch or pain
  8. Neuroptanesthesia
    Anesthesia that combines decreased sensation of pain with amnesia while the patient remains conscious
  9. Sedation
    State of decreased anxiety and inhibitions
  10. Hypnosis
    Instigation of sleep
  11. GABA
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid. Chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS
  12. Benzodiazepines
    Increase the GABA receptor-cloride ion channel complexes' potential for binding with GABA. Antagonist is Flumazenil
  13. Anti-Seizure Meds
    • Partial Seizures: Phenytoin (Dilantin)
    • Carbamazepine
    • Grand Mal: Carbamazepine
    • Phenytoin
    • Phenobarbital

    • Absence: Valproic Acid
    • Ethosuximide
  14. Psychotherapeutic Medication
    Drug used to treat mental dysfunction
  15. Extrapyramidal Symptoms
    Common side effects of antipsychotic medications including muscule tremors
  16. Neuroleptic
    Antipsychotic effecting the nerve.
  17. Major Classes of Antidepressants
    • -Ticyclic Anti-depressants (TCA)
    • -Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
    • -Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
  18. Autonomic Nervous System
    The part of the nervous system that controls involuntary functions
  19. Autonomic Ganglia
    Groups of autonomic nerve cells located outside the centra nervous system
  20. Preganglionic Nerves
    Nerve fibers that extend from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia
  21. Postganglionic Nerves
    Nerve fibers that extend from the autonomic ganglia to the target tissues
  22. Synapse
    Space between nerve cells
  23. Neuroeffector Junction
    Specialized synapse between a nerve cell and the organ or tissue it innervates
  24. Neurotransmitter
    Chamical messenger that conduct a nervous impulse across a synapse
  25. Neuron
    Nerve cell
  26. Cholinergic
    Pertaining to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
  27. Adrenergic
    Pertaining to the neurotransmitter norepinepherine
  28. Cranial Nerves Carrying Parasympathetic Fibers
    • -III
    • -VII
    • -IX
    • -X
  29. Parasympathetic Stimulation Results In
    • -Pupillary Constriction
    • -Secretion by Digestive Glands
    • -Reduction in heart rate and cardiac contractile force
    • -Bronchoconstriction
    • -Increase smooth muscle activity along the digestive tract
  30. Parasympatomimetic
    Drug or other substance that causes effects like those of the parasympathetic nervous system. AKA Cholinergic
  31. Parasympatholytic
    Drug or other substance that blocks or inhibits the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. AKA Anticholinergic
  32. Muscarinic ACh Receptors VS Nicotinic ACh Receptors
    • Nicotinic (Sympathetic and Parasympathetic):
    • -Found at neuromuscular junction of skeletal muscles only
    • -Found on postganglionic parasympathetic nerves
    • -Found on many neurons in the brain
    • -Nicotine is an agonist
    • -Curare is an antagonist

    • Muscarinic (Parasympathetic):
    • -Found at the neuromuscular junction of smooth and cardiac muscle
    • -Found on postglanionic sympathetic nerves
    • -Found on glands
    • -Muscarine is an agonist
    • -Atropine is an antagonist
  33. Effects of Cholinergic Medications
    • Salivation
    • Lacrimation
    • Urination
    • Defecation
    • Gastric motility
    • Emesis
  34. Types of Parasympathetic ACh Receptors
    • -Muscarinic
    • -Nicotinic
    • -Nicotinic n (Neuron)
    • -Nicotinic m (Muscle)
  35. Effects of Atropine Overdose
    • -Hot as hell
    • -Blind as a bat
    • -Dry as a bone
    • -Red as a beet
    • -Mad as a hatter
  36. Sympathetic Nervous System Stimulation results In
    • -Stimulation of secretion by sweat glands
    • -Constriction of blood vessels in the skin
    • -Increase in blood flow to skeletal muscles
    • -Increase in the heart rate and force of cardiac contractions
    • -Bronchodilation
    • -Stimulation of energy production
  37. Types of Sympathetic Receptors
    • -Adrenergic
    • Alpha1:
    • Vasoconstriction, metabolisim stimulation

    Alpha2: Regulator of norepinepherine

    • Beta1: Increased heart rate (chronotropic)
    • Increased cardiac contractile force (inotropic)
    • Increased cardiac automaticity and conduction (dromotropic)

    Beta2: Vasodilation, Bronchodilation

    -Dopaminergic: Vasodilation
  38. Sympathomimetic
    Drug or other sybstance that causes effects like those of the sympathetic nervous system. AKA Adrenergic
  39. Sympatholytic
    Drug or other substance that blocks the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. AKA Antiadrenergic
  40. Antidysrhythmic
    Drug used to treat and prevent abnormal cardiac rhythms
  41. Antidysrhythmic Classes
    Vaughn-Williams and Singh Classification System

    • I: Na+ Channel Blockers
    • 1A (i.e procainamide, quinidine)
    • 1B (i.e Lidocaine, phenytoin)
    • 1C (i.e Flecainide, propafenone)

    II: Beta-blockers (i.e Propranolol, acebutolol)

    III: K+ Channel blockers (i.e Bretylium, amiodarone)

    IV: Ca++ Channel blockers (i.e Verapamil, diltiazem)

    V: Miscellaneous (i.e Adenosine, digoxin)
  42. Diuretic
    Drug used to reduce the circulating blood volume by increasing the amount of urine
  43. Hemostasis
    The stoppage of bleeding
  44. Antiplatelet
    Drug that decreases the formation of platelet plugs
  45. Anticoagulant
    Drug that interrupts the clotting cascade
  46. Fibrinolytic
    Drug that acts directly on thrombi to break them down. AKA Thrombolytic
  47. Antihyperlipidemic
    Drug used to treat high blood cholesterol
  48. Leukotriene
    Mediator released from mast cells upon contact with allergens
  49. Histamine
    An endogenous substance that affects a wide variety of organ systems
  50. Antihistamine
    Medication that arrests the effects of histamine by blocking its receptors
  51. Antitussive
    Medication that suppressed the stimulus to cough in the central nervous system
  52. Expectorant
    Medication intended to increase the productivity of cough
  53. Mucolytic
    Medication intended to make mucous more watery
  54. Antacid
    Alkalotic compund used to increase the gastric environment's pH
  55. Categories of Laxatives
    • -Bulk-forming
    • -Stimulant
    • -Osmotic
    • -Surfactant
  56. Laxative
    Medication used to decresease stool's firmness and increase its water content
  57. Surfactant
    Substance that decreases surface tension
  58. Antiemetic
    Medication used to prevent vomitting
  59. Insulin
    Substance that decreases the level of glucose in the blood
  60. Glucagon
    Substance that increases blood glucose levels
  61. Antineoplastic Agent
    Drug used to treat cancer
  62. Antibiotic
    Agent that kills or decreases the growth of bacteria
  63. Pathogen
    Disease-causing organism
  64. Immunity
    The body's ability to respond to the prescnce of a pathogen
  65. Serum
    Solution containing whole antibodies for specific pathogens
  66. Vaccine
    Solution containing a modified pathogen that does not actually cause disease but still stimulates the development of antibodies specific to it

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