Ch 7-9

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  1. Ivan Pavlov—
    Classical conditioning, Dog experiment, salivation Russian psychologist
  2. Edward Thorndike—
    Instrumental learning, Cat in box experiment
  3. BF Skinner—.
    pioneer of study of instrumental conditioning, Rats and pigeons experiment
  4. UCS unconditioned stimulus (food)–
    another stimulus--– A stimulus that automatically elicits a response
  5. CS Conditioned stimulus (light)–
    previously neutral stimulus--Previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response due to association with UCS
  6. CS + UCS = ,
  7. UCR Unconditioned response (Salivation)-
    A response originally given to the UCS, (used as basis for producing a conditioned response)
  8. CR Conditioned response (Salivation) –
    The learned or acquired response
  9. Descrimination—
    A reaction to differences. Good dog vs. Bad dog
  10. Sensitization--
    A behavioral response increases during presentation of an intense stimulus
  11. Predictability--
    knowing that a particular stimulus is coming when another stimulus occurs.--A CS can become a “danger” signal and its absence can be a “safety”signal.--When a CS is not properly identified or paired as an indicator of pain, anxiety can develop
  12. Learning--
    A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
  13. Learning 2 types
    • Nonassociative
    • Associative
    • Classical conditioning• Instrumental conditioning• Complex learning
  14. Nonassociative--
    Learning about a single stimulus HABITUATION/ SENSITIZATION
  15. Associative --
    Learning relationships among events
  16. Scheules of Reinforcement
    • Continuious
    • Ratio
    • Interval
  17. Continuous--Reinforcement
    • is provided each time a behavior is made
    • – Weakest behavioral response
    • – Extinction occurs the quickest (weakest over time)
  18. Ratio reinforcement
    • is provided after a fixed number of responses
    • – FR5 means five responses– The higher the ratio, the higher the number of responses (especially if they began at a low FR)
    • – Less prone to extinction than continuous
  19. Interval reinforcement
    • An organism is reinforced for its response after a certain amount of time has passed since its last reinforcemen
    • t– FI2 means reinforcement occurs after 2 minutes
    • – Organism will pause after reinforcement– Increase in amount of responding as end of interval approaches
  20. Phenone--
    Unit of speech that is a discrete category. The B sound in bat.
  21. Language abilities
    • At Birth- Can discriminate among different sounds that belong to different phenomes. Of any language.
    • 1 Yr- Begin speaking—Tend to overextend words
    • —1 ½ yrs= 25 words
    • 6 yrs= 15,000
  22. Three stages of memory
    • Encoding stage
    • Storage stage
    • Retrieval Stage
  23. Encoding stage
    • When environmental information is translated into and stored into a meaningful entity.
    • Failure in encoding involves not properly storing the information to begin with.
  24. Storage Stage
    • When stored info. is maintained over tiem.
    • Failure in storage suggests that you forgot the info somewhere along the way.
  25. Retrieval Stage
    • When attempts are made to pull from memory info that was previously encoded and stored there.
    • Failure in retrieval is due to the inability to connect the name w/ the image in such a way that you could onjure up one from another.
  26. Sensory store
    Less than a scondContains all info captured by sense organs
  27. Short term store
    A matter of secondsCan be identified w consciousnessInfo is readily accessible
  28. Long term store
    • Ranging from minutes to years
    • Info enters, via elaboration, from short term
    • Size seems unlimited
  29. Explicit Memory
    A person consciously recollects an event in occurring in a particular time or place. IE funeral, 9/11
  30. Implicit memory
    A person unconsciously remembers info of various sorts. IE riding a horse flying a plane.
  31. Ways to help improve memory
    • Chunking-and memory spam
    • Imagery and encoding
    • Organization
    • Elaboration and encoding
    • Context and retrieval
    • Practicing Retrieval
  32. Chunking
    Recording new material into larger more meaningful units and storing those units in woorkine memory
  33. Imagery and encoding
    Meaningful connectionsMenta images
  34. Elboration and encoding
    Expanding on ELABORATING the meaning of something
  35. Context and retrieval
    Being in the same room or state will help you retrieve info.
  36. Recall
    produce a memorized item using minimal retrieval cues
  37. Recognition
    Whether or not you have seen an item before
    Whether or not you have seen an item before
  38. Eidetic imagery
    Remembering a visual image from only brief observation
  39. 3 sterps of working memory
    • Encoing
    • storage
    • retrieval
  40. Ecoiding memory
    • Must attend to info to encode it
    • phonological, visual, semantic coding
  41. Storage memory
    capacity of working memory is 7 items + or - 2
  42. Retrieval memory
    • The more items in working memory the slower retrieval becomes.
    • Sternberg memory task showed rthat decision time increases directly w the length of the list.
Card Set:
Ch 7-9
2011-10-26 16:13:13

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