Home > Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards.
Classical conditioning, Dog experiment, salivation Russian psychologist
Instrumental learning, Cat in box experiment
pioneer of study of instrumental conditioning, Rats and pigeons experiment
UCS unconditioned stimulus (food)–
another stimulus--– A stimulus that automatically elicits a response
CS Conditioned stimulus (light)–
previously neutral stimulus--Previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response due to association with UCS
UCR Unconditioned response (Salivation)-
A response originally given to the UCS, (used as basis for producing a conditioned response)
CR Conditioned response (Salivation) –
The learned or acquired response
A reaction to differences. Good dog vs. Bad dog
A behavioral response increases during presentation of an intense stimulus
knowing that a particular stimulus is coming when another stimulus occurs.--A CS can become a “danger” signal and its absence can be a “safety”signal.--When a CS is not properly identified or paired as an indicator of pain, anxiety can develop
A relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience
Learning 2 types
- Classical conditioning• Instrumental conditioning• Complex learning
Learning about a single stimulus HABITUATION/ SENSITIZATION
Learning relationships among events
Scheules of Reinforcement
- is provided each time a behavior is made
- – Weakest behavioral response
- – Extinction occurs the quickest (weakest over time)
- is provided after a fixed number of responses
- – FR5 means five responses– The higher the ratio, the higher the number of responses (especially if they began at a low FR)
- – Less prone to extinction than continuous
- An organism is reinforced for its response after a certain amount of time has passed since its last reinforcemen
- t– FI2 means reinforcement occurs after 2 minutes
- – Organism will pause after reinforcement– Increase in amount of responding as end of interval approaches
Unit of speech that is a discrete category. The B sound in bat.
- At Birth- Can discriminate among different sounds that belong to different phenomes. Of any language.
- 1 Yr- Begin speaking—Tend to overextend words
- —1 ½ yrs= 25 words
- 6 yrs= 15,000
Three stages of memory
- Encoding stage
- Storage stage
- Retrieval Stage
- When environmental information is translated into and stored into a meaningful entity.
- Failure in encoding involves not properly storing the information to begin with.
- When stored info. is maintained over tiem.
- Failure in storage suggests that you forgot the info somewhere along the way.
- When attempts are made to pull from memory info that was previously encoded and stored there.
- Failure in retrieval is due to the inability to connect the name w/ the image in such a way that you could onjure up one from another.
Less than a scondContains all info captured by sense organs
Short term store
A matter of secondsCan be identified w consciousnessInfo is readily accessible
Long term store
- Ranging from minutes to years
- Info enters, via elaboration, from short term
- Size seems unlimited
A person consciously recollects an event in occurring in a particular time or place. IE funeral, 9/11
A person unconsciously remembers info of various sorts. IE riding a horse flying a plane.
Ways to help improve memory
- Chunking-and memory spam
- Imagery and encoding
- Elaboration and encoding
- Context and retrieval
- Practicing Retrieval
Recording new material into larger more meaningful units and storing those units in woorkine memory
Imagery and encoding
Meaningful connectionsMenta images
Elboration and encoding
Expanding on ELABORATING the meaning of something
Context and retrieval
Being in the same room or state will help you retrieve info.
produce a memorized item using minimal retrieval cues
Whether or not you have seen an item before
Whether or not you have seen an item before
Remembering a visual image from only brief observation
3 sterps of working memory
- Must attend to info to encode it
- phonological, visual, semantic coding
capacity of working memory is 7 items + or - 2
- The more items in working memory the slower retrieval becomes.
- Sternberg memory task showed rthat decision time increases directly w the length of the list.
What would you like to do?
Home > Flashcards > Print Preview